In the aftermath of World War I a relevant part of Austrian Tyrol was occupied by Italy, and subsequently annexed. The areas around Trent formed Italian-speaking Trentino. In the north the valleys around Bolzano/Bozen were inhabited by ethnic Germans and Ladins (Today the third official language of South Tyrol, alongside German and Italian).
With the Treaty of Gruber-De Gasperi the winner of WWII decided to give South Tyrol to Italy but at the same time the german speaking people where granted special rights.
Today South Tyrol (i.e. the Province of Bozen-Südtirol or Bolzano-Alto Adige) enjoys a high degree of autonomy, and relations with North and East Tyrol - the two portions of the old state retained by Austria - are lively, especially since Austria joined the European Union. There is a South Tyrolese People's Party.
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South Tyrol is divided into several administrative regions/Villages (Gemeinden/Comuni):