New Zealand birds

As a land without terrestrial mammals of any kind, New Zealand was, until the arrival of the first humans, inhabited by an extraordinarily diverse range of specialised birds. The ecological niches occupied by mammals as different as cows and rodents, kangaroos and moless, were filled by reptiles, insects, or birds.

When humans arrived in New Zealand sometime between 800 and 1300, this unique and unusual ecology was endangered. Several species were hunted to extinction, most notably the moa and harpagornis. The most damage however was caused by the other animals that humans brought with them, particularly rats (both the Polynesian rat or kiore imported by Maori and the Norwegian rat subsequently introduced by the Europeans), but also dogs, cats, stoats, weasels, hedgehogs, and most deadly of all, the Australian possum. The flightless birds were in particular danger. Consequently several birds species have become extinct and others remain critically endangered. Several species are now confined only to offshore islands, or to fenced "mainland islands" from which predators have been eliminated. Consequently New Zealand is today a world leader in the techniques required to bring severely endangered species back from the brink of extinction.

The birds below are listed by their Maori name (where known) with English alternatives in brackets. In some cases (tui, kaka, weka, pukeko, moa, kiwi, kea, kokako, takahe) the Maori name is the common name. In other cases (fantail, albatross, black-backed gull, bellbird, morepork, dotterel, wax-eye, oystercatcher) the english name is most commonly used.

The 49 species marked extinct would all have been present in New Zealand at the time of the Roman Empire, and became extinct subsequent to man's arrival in New Zealand. Of these, 34 extinctions occurred after the arrival of Maori but before the arrival of Pakeha with 15 further extinctions since.

  • Adzebill Aptornis otidiformis, Extinct
  • Amokura (Red-tailed Tropic Bird) Phaethon rubricauda
  • Auckland Island Merganser Mergus australis, Extinct
  • Blue-Billed Duck Oxyura australis, Extinct
  • Chatham Island Banded Rail Rallus dietienbachii, Extinct
  • Chatham Island Bellbird Anthornis melanura melanocephala, Extinct
  • Chatham Island Duck Pachyanas chathamica, Extinct
  • Chatham Island Fernbird Bowdleria rufescens, Extinct
  • Chatham Island Rail Rallus modestus, Extinct
  • Chatham Island Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus australis, Extinct
  • De Lautour's Duck Biziura delautouri, Extinct
  • Dieffenbach's Rail Rallus philippensis dieffenbachii, Extinct
  • Eyles' Harrier Circus eylesi, Extinct
  • Giant Chatham Island Rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi, Extinct
  • Giant Chatham Island Snipe Coenocorypha chathamica, Extinct
  • Grant-Mackie's Wren Pachyplichas jagmi, Extinct
  • Hakawai (New Zealand Snipe)
  • Hakoakoa (Skua) - several species
    • Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus (Migratory visitor)
    • Brown Skua (Subantarctic Skua) Catharacta lonnbergi
  • Hihi (Stitchbird) Notiomystis cincta threatened
  • Hodgen's Rail Gallinula hodgeni, Extinct
  • Huahou (Red Knot) Calidris canutus
  • Hoiho (Yellow eyed Penguin)
  • Huia Heteralocha acutirostris, Extinct
  • Kahu (Harrier Hawk) Circus approximans
  • Kaka (Bush Parrot), Nestor meridionalis
  • Kakariki (New Zealand Parakeet) - 2 species
    • Red-crowned Parakeet Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae
    • Yellow-crowned Parakeet Cyanoramphus auriceps
  • Kaki (Black Stilt)
  • Kakapo (Owl Parrot)
  • Karearea (New Zealand Falcon)
  • Karoro (Gull)
    • (Black-billed Gull) Larus bulleri
    • (Red-billed Gull) Larus novaehollandiae
    • ( Black backed Gull) Larus dominicanus
  • Kawau (Shags)
    • Kawau (Great Black Shag or Black Shag) Phalacrocorax carbo
    • Karuhiruhi (Pied Shag) Phalacrocorax varius
    • Little Black Shag Phalacrocorax sulcirostris
    • Kawaupaka (Little Pied Shag or Little Shag) Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
    • Parekareka (Spotted Shag or Blue Shag) Phalacrocorax punctatus
    • Auckland Islands Shag Phalacrocorax colensoi vulnerable
    • Campbell Island Shag Phalacrocorax campbelli vulnerable
    • King Shag Phalacrocorax carunculatus vulnerable
    • Bronze Shag Phalacrocorax chalconotus vulnerable
    • Stewart Island Shag Phalacrocorax featherstoni vulnerable
    • Chatham Island Shag Phalacrocorax onslowi endangered
    • Bounty Islands Shag Phalacrocorax ranfurlyi vulnerable
  • Kea (Mountain Parrot) Nestor notabilis, threatened
  • Kereru (Wood Pigeon)
  • Kiwi
    • North Island brown kiwi Apteryx mantelli 'North Island', Endangered
    • Okarito brown kiwi Apteryx mantelli 'Okarito', Endangered
    • Southern tokoeka kiwi Apteryx australis 'Fiordland/Stewart Island', Vulnerable
    • Southern tokoeka kiwi(Haast tokoeka) Apteryx australis 'Haast', Vulnerable
    • Great spotted kiwi Apteryx haastii, Vulnerable
    • Little spotted kiwi Apteryx owenii, Vulnerable
  • Koekoea (Longtailed Cuckoo)
  • Kokako (Blue Wattled Crow) - 2 species
    • North Island kokako Callaeas cinerea wilsoni, Endangered
    • South Island kokako Callaeas cinerea cinerea, Probably extinct
  • Korimako (Bellbird)
  • Kotuhi (Bush Wren) Xenicus longpipes, Extinct
  • Little Barrier Snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica barrierensis, Extinct
  • Matata (Fernbird)
  • Matuhi (Stephens Island Wren)
  • Miromiro (Tomtit)
  • Moa - 11 species
    • Little Bush Moa Anomalopteryx didiformis, Extinct
    • Upland Moa Megalapteryx didinus, Extinct
    • Heavy-Footed Moa Pachyornis elephantopus, Extinct
    • Crested Moa Pachyornis australis, Extinct
    • Mappin's Moa Pachyornis mappini, Extinct
    • Eastern Moa Emeus Crassus, Extinct
    • Stout-Legged Moa, Euryapteryx geranoides, Extinct
    • Coastal Moa Euryapteryx curtus, Extinct
    • Slender Bush Moa Dinornis struthoides, Extinct
    • Large Bush Moa Dinornis novaezealandiae, Extinct
    • Giant Moa Dinornis giganteus, Extinct
  • Mohua (Yellowhead)
  • New Zealand Coot Fulica chathamensis, Extinct
  • New Zealand Crow Palaeocorax moriorum, Extinct
  • New Zealand Eagle (Leopard Eagle) Harpagornis moorei, Extinct
  • New Zealand Goose - 2 species
    • North Island Goose, Cnemiornis gracilis, Extinct
    • South Island Goose, Cnemiornis calcitrans, Extinct
  • New Zealand Little Bittern Ixobrychus novaezelandiae, Extinct
  • New Zealand Owlet-Nightjar Aegotheles novaezealandiae, Extinct
  • New Zealand Pelican, Pelecanus novaezealandiae, Extinct
  • New Zealand Quail, Coturnix novaezelandiae novaezelandia, Extinct
  • New Zealand Swan, Cygnus sumnerensis, Extinct
  • Ngutuparore (Wrybill)
  • Papango (Black Teal or New Zealand Scaup)
  • Pateke (Brown Teal)
  • Piopio Turnagra capensis, Extinct
  • Pipipi (Brown Creeper)
  • Piwakawaka (Fantail) Rhipidura fuliginosa
  • Pihoihoi (New Zealand Pipit)
  • Popokatea (Whitehead)
  • Pukeko
  • Putangitangi (Paradise Duck)
  • Riroriro (Grey Warbler)
  • Ruru (Morepork)
  • Scarlett's Duck Malacorhynchus scarletti, Extinct
  • Snipe-Rail Capellirallus karamu, Extinct
  • Stephens Island Wren Traversia lyalli, Extinct
  • Stewart Island Snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei, Extinct
  • Taiko (Magenta Petrel)
  • Takahe
    • North Island Takahe Porphyrio mantelli, Extinct
    • South Island Takahe Porphyrio hochstetteri,Critical
  • Takapu (Gannet) Sula serrator
  • Taranui (Caspian Tern)
  • Tarapiroe (Black-fronted Tern)
  • Tawaki (Fiordland Penguin) Eudyptes pachyrhynchus endangered
  • Tauhou (Silver-eye, Wax-eye or White-eye)
  • Tieke (Saddleback) - 2 species
    • North Island Saddleback, carunculatus rufusater, endangered
    • South Island Saddleback, carunculatus carunculatus, endangered
  • Titi (Muttonbird or Sooty Shearwater)
  • Titipounamu (Rifleman)
  • Torea (Oystercatcher)
  • Toroa (Albatross)
  • Toutouwai (New Zealand Robin)
  • Tui (Parson Bird)
  • Tuturiwhatu (New Zealand Dotterel)
  • Tuturuatu (Shore Plover)
  • Weka (Woodhen)
  • Weweia (New Zealand dabchick)
  • Whekau (Laughing Owl) Sceloglaux albifacies, Extinct
  • Whio (Blue Duck)
  • Yaldwyn's Wren Pachyplichas yaldwyni, Extinct

For a comprehensive listing, see Australasian birds, which includes the birds of New Zealand, Australia, and the Southern Ocean.

External Links:


">
" size=20>

 
 

Browse articles alphabetically:
#0">0 | #1">1 | #2">2 | #3">3 | #4">4 | #5">5 | #6">6 | #7">7 | #8">8 | #9">9 | #_">_ | #A">A | #B">B | #C">C | #D">D | #E">E | #F">F | #G">G | #H">H | #I">I | #J">J | #K">K | #L">L | #M">M | #N">N | #O">O | #P">P | #Q">Q | #R">R | #S">S | #T">T | #U">U | #V">V | #W">W | #X">X | #Y">Y | #Z">Z