Monuments of Portugal

Portugal is a country with a long History. In the country had passed many civilizations that had left its mark in the territory. They built castles, palaces, towns and cities. Before this the prehistoric Man already molded the Portuguese landscape.

Table of contents
1 Portugal as a mixture of civilizations
2 National Monuments

Portugal as a mixture of civilizations

The first known people that lived in Portugal, were the Oestriminis, that stretched they're territory from Galicia (Northwestern Spain) to the Algarve. They are today seen as the first native people. The first documented invasion was much long before the birth of Christ, when the Ophis with other tribes entered the Iberian Peninsula and instaled in the best lands of the Oestreminis, near the Douro and Tagus Rivers. Later the territory has been conquered or settled by numerous civilizations. Celts, Greeks, Iberians and Lusitanians to name some. The Phoenicians had established also in that side of the peninsula and had great effect on the Lusitanians, especially on they're religion, culture and language. The Lusitanians are seen as the proto-Portuguese.

Later came the Romans, a people that had been of the most importantance. Many of they're constructions and cities are still found, nowadays, in ruins, because of the various invasions from other civilizations.

After the Romans, the Visigoths, the Suevi came along with other Barbarian people from Germany and had installed in the territory.

Later came the Moorish people, from North Africa and invated the entired Peninsula, except in a streach of mountains in Asturias (northern Spain) from where the reconquest (reconquista) of the Iberian Peninsula started.

This civilizations brougth Portugal a great deal of Monuments. Portugal emerged as one of the various nations from the christian reconquista. It take its autonomy from the Kingdom of Leon in 1128. And emerged as a full independent kingdom and officially recognized in 1143. From then on, Monuments have been built in honour of its kings, nobles, church and its various battles for independence and the maintnance of it. The country continued to been influenced by other civilization, one of which was the Viking that invated , destroied and steal artifacts from many monuments. The Castillian (later the Spanish) and the French where also responsable for some dammage on historical buildings after they're invasions on Portugal.

See also: History of Portugal - Timeline of Portuguese history - List of Portuguese monarchs - Kings of Portugal family tree - Lusitania - Roman Empire

National Monuments

Altought in Portugal there are numerous monuments from various ages. Some of them have a special value due to its historical, architectonic, artistic and cultural importance. This monuments are classified and protected by the Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese institute for architectural heritage) that declares monuments as Monumento Nacional (National Monument). They are protected and preserved by this institute.

Castles, Palaces and Libraries

Northern Portugal

region: Entre Douro e Minho

region: Trás-os-Montes
  • Castle of Ansiães, Carrazeda de Ansiães
  • Castle of Monforte, Chaves
  • Castle of Montalegre, Montalegre

Central Portugal

region: Beira Litoral

  • Castle of Montemor-o-Velho, Montemor-o-Velho
  • Castle of Penela, Penela
  • Castle of Santa Maria da Feira, Santa Maria da Feira

region: Beira Interior
  • Castle of Belmonte, Belmonte
  • Castle of Castelo Rodrigo, Figueira De Castelo Rodrigo
  • Castle of Marialva, Mêda
  • Castle of Pinhel, Pinhel

region: Estremadura and Ribatejo
  • Castle of Almourol, Vila Nova da Barquinha
  • Library of Ajuda, Lisbon
  • National Palace of Ajuda, Lisbon
  • National Palace of Pena, Sintra
  • National Palace of Queluz, Sintra
  • National Palace of Sintra, Sintra
  • Palace and Convent of Mafra, Mafra
  • Tower of São Vicente de Belém, Lisbon

Southern Portugal

region: Alentejo

  • Castle of Amieira do Tejo, Nisa
  • Castle of Belver, Gavião
  • Castle of Campo Maior, Campo Maior
  • Castle of Elvas, Elvas
  • Castle of Évoramonte, Évora
  • Castle of Portalegre, Portalegre
  • Castle of Terena, Alandroal
  • Castle of Viana do Alentejo, Viana do Alentejo

region: Algarve
  • Fortress of Sagres, Vila do Bispo

Monasteries, Cathedrals and Churches

Northern Portugal

region: Entre Douro e Minho

  • Cathedral of Braga, Braga
  • Cathedral of Oporto, Oporto
  • Chapel of São Frutuoso de Montélios, Braga
  • Church of São Miguel do Castelo, Guimarães
  • First Church of Caminha, Caminha
  • Monastery of Grijó, Vila Nova de Gaia
  • Monastery of Pombeiro, Felgueiras
  • Monastery of Rendufe, Amares
  • Monastery of Tibães, Braga

region: Trás-os-Montes
  • Cathedral of Vila Real, Vila Real
  • Church of Miranda, Miranda do Douro
  • First Church of Freixo de Espada à Cinta, Freixo de Espada à Cinta
  • First Church of Torre de Moncorvo, Moncorvo

Central Portugal

region: Beira Litoral

region: Beira Interior
  • Cathedral of Guarda, Guarda
  • Church of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Aguiar, Figueira De Castelo Rodrigo

region: Estremadura and Ribatejo
  • Cathedral of Lisbon, Lisbon
  • Chapel of São Jorge, Porto de Mós
  • Church of Santa Eugrácia and National Panteon, Lisbon
  • Church of Santa Maria da Graça de Santarém, Santarém
  • Church of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon
  • Convent of Christ, Tomar
  • First Church of Golegã, Golegã
  • Monastery of Alcobaça, Alcobaça
  • Monastery of Batalha, Batalha
  • Monastery of Jenónimos, Lisbon

Southern Portugal

region: Alentejo

  • Cathedral of Évora, Évora
  • Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção, Elvas
  • Monastery of Flor da Rosa, Crato

region: Algarve
  • Hermitage of Nossa Senhora de Guadalupe, Vila do Bispo

Prehistoric, Roman and other National Monuments

Northern Portugal

region: Entre Douro e Minho

region: Trás-os-Montes

Central Portugal

region: Beira Interior

  • Roman Ruins of Egiptânia and Medieval Idanha-a-Velha, Idanha-a-Nova
  • Roman Tower of Centum Cellas, Belmonte

Southern Portugal

region: Alentejo

  • Grotto of Escoural, Montemor-o-Novo
  • Lagar de Varas do Fojo, Moura
  • Megalitic Monuments of Elvas, Elvas
  • Pre-Historic Settlement of Santa Vitória, Campo Maior
  • Pre-Historic to Medieval Curcuit of Cola, Ourique
  • Roman Ruins of Miróbriga, Santiago do Cacém
  • Roman Ruins of Villa Áulica and Convent of São Cucufate, Vidigueira
  • Roman Villa of Pisões, Beja
  • Roman Villa of Torre de Palma, Monforte

region: Algarve

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