Diptera

Diptera
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Families
Suborder Archidiptera
Infraorder Nymphomyiomorpha
   Nymphomyiidae
Infraorder Dictyodipteromorpha extinct
 Superfamily Dictyodipteridea
   Dictyodipteridae - (Upper Triassic)
 Superfamily Hyperpolyneuridea
   Hyperpolyneuridae - (Upper Triassic)
 Superfamily Dyspolyneuridea
   Dyspolyneuridae - (Upper Triassic)
Infraorder Diplopolyneuromorpha extinct
   Diplopolyneuridae - (Upper Triassic)
Suborder Eudiptera
Infraorder Deuterophlebiomorpha
   Deuterophlebiidae
Infraorder Blephariceromorpha
   Blephariceridae
Infraorder Tipulomorpha
  Superfamily Eopolyneuridea extinct
   Eopolyneuridae - (Upper Triassic)
   Musidoromimidae - (Upper Triassic)
  Superfamily Tipulodictyidea extinct
   Tipulodictyidae - (Upper Triassic)
  Superfamily Tanyderophryneidea extinct
   Tanyderophryneidae - (Middle Jurassic)


  Superfamily Tipulidea
   Architipulidae extinct (Upper Triassic)
   ...(Pan Jurassic)
   Eolimnobiidae extinct (Lower Jurassic)
   Trichoceridae
   Cylindrotomidae
   Limoniidae
   Tipulidae - Crane flies
   Tanyderidae
   Ptychopteridae
  Superfamily Eoptychopteridea extinct
   Eoptychopteridae - (Lower Jurassic)
  Superfamily Psychodidea
   Psychodidae
   Nemopalpidae
   Phlebotomidae
Infraorder Culicomorpha¤
   Chaoboridae¤
   Asiochaoboridae extinct (Upper Jurassic)¤
   Culicidae - Mosquitos¤
   Dixidae¤
   Architendipedidae extinct (Upper Triassic)¤
   Protendipedidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)¤
   Thaumaleidae¤
   Chironomidae¤
   Ceratopogonidae¤
   Simuliidae - Black flies¤¤
   Mesophantasmatidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)¤


Infraorder Bibionomorpha
   Anisopodidae¤
   Axymyiidae¤
   Bibionidae¤
   Bolitophilidae¤
   Canthyloscelididae¤
   Cecidomyiidae¤
   Diadocidiidae¤
   Ditomyiidae¤
   Eopleciidae extinct (Lower Jurassic)¤
   Hesperinidae¤
   Keroplatidae¤
   Lygistorhinidae¤
   Manotidae¤
   Mycetophilidae¤
   Oligophryneidae extinct (Upper Triassic)¤
   Pachyneuridae¤
   Paraxymyiidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)¤
   Perissommatidae¤
   Protobibionidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)¤
   Protopleciidae extinct (Pan Jurassic)¤
   Protorhyphidae extinct (Upper Triassic)
   Scatopsidae¤
   Sciaridae¤
  Superfamily Pleciodictyidea extinct
   Pleciodictyidae - (Upper Triassic)
  Superfamily Protoligoneuridea extinct
   Protoligoneuridae - (Upper Triassic)


  Superfamily Fungivoridea
   Pleciofungivoridae extinct (Upper Triassic)
   ...(Lower and Middle Jurassic)
   Palaeopleciidae extinct (Upper Triassic)
   Pleciomimidae extinct
   ... (Lower and Middle Jurassic)
   Archizelmiridae extinct (Middle Jurassic)
   Fungivoritidae extinct
   ...(Middle and Upper Jurassic)
   Tipulopleciidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)
   Sinemediidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)
   Allactoneuridae
   Ceroplatidae
   Macroceridae
   Mycetobiidae
   Fungivoridae


  Superfamily Cecidomyiidea
   Lestremiidae


   Heteropezidae
  Superfamily Scatopsidea
   Protoscatopsidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)
   Hyperoscelididae
   Synneurontidae


Suborder Brachycera¤¤
Infraorder Orthorrhapha
  Superfamily Tabanomorpha
   Eostratiomyiidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)
   Alinkidae extinct (Triassic)
   Rhagionidae
   Athericidae
   Tabanidae
   Pelecorhynchidae
   Vermileonidae - worm lions
  Superfamily Nemestrinioidea
   Acroceridae
   Nemestrinidae
  Superfamily Xylophagomorpha
   Pantophtalmidae
   Xylophagidae
   Eomyiidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)
  Superfamily Stratiomyomorpha
   Archisargidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)
   Stratiomyidae
   Xylomyidae
  Superfamily Asiloidea
   Protomphralidae extinct (Middle Jurassic)
   Eremochaetidae extinct (Cretaceous, Jurassic)
   Therevidae
   Apioceridae
   Asilidae
   Mydidae
   Scenopinidae
   Bombyliidae
   Apystomyiidae
   Mythicomyiidae
   Systropodidae
  Superfamily Empidoidea
   Empididae
   Dolichopodidae
   Rhagionempididae extinct (Middle Jurassic)
   Protempididae extinct (Upper Jurassic)
Infraorder Cyclorrhapha
 Section Aschiza
  Superfamily Platypezidea
   Phoridae
   Sciadoceridae
   Opetiidae
   Ironomyiidae
   Lonchopteridae
   Platypezidae
  Superfamily Syrphidea
   Syrphidae
   Pipunculidae
 Section Schizophora
 Sub-section Acalyptratae
  Superfamily Conopoidea
   Conopidae
  Superfamily Tephritoidea
   Ctenostyldae
   Lonchaeidae
   Pallopteridae
   Piophilidae
   Platystomatidae
   Pyrgotidae
   Richardiidae
   Tachiniscidae
   Tephritidae
   Ulidiidae
  Superfamily Nerioidea
   Cypselosomatidae
   Megamerinidae
   Micropezidae
   Neriidae
   Pseudopomyzidae
  Superfamily Diopsoidea
   Diopsidae
   Gobryidae
   Nothybidae
   Psilidae
   Somatiidae
   Syringogastridae
   Tanypezidae
  Superfamily Sciomyzoidea
   Coelopidae
   Dryomyzidae
   Helosciomyzidae
   Ropalomeridae
   Sepsidae
   Sciomyzidae
  Superfamily Sphaeroceroidea
   Chyromyidae
   Heleomyzidae
   Sphaeroceridae
  Superfamily Lauxanioidea
   Celyphidae
   Chamaemyiidae
   Eurychoromyiidae
   Lauxaniidae
  Superfamily Opomyzoidea
   Acartophthalmidae
   Agromyzidae
   Anthomyzidae
   Asteiidae
   Aulacigastridae
   Clusiidae
   Fergusoninidae
   Marginidae
   Neminidae
   Neurochaetidae
   Odiniidae
   Opomyzidae
   Periscelididae
   Teratomyzidae
   Xenasteiidae
  Superfamily Ephydroidea
   Camillidae
   Curtonotidae
   Diastatidae
   Ephydridae
   Drosophilidae
  Superfamily Carnoidea
   Australimyzidae
   Braulidae
   Canaceidae
   Carnidae
   Chloropidae
   Cryptochaetidae
   Milichiidae
   Tethinidae
 Sub-section Calyptratae
  Superfamily Muscoidea
   Anthomyiidae - cabbage fly
   Fanniidae
   Muscidae - house fly
   Scathophagidae - dung fly
  Superfamily Oestridea
   Calliphoridae
   Mystacinobiidae
   Oestridae
   Rhinophoridae
   Sarcophagidae
   Tachinidae
  Superfamily Hippoboscoidea
   Glossinidae
   Hippoboscidae
   Mormotomyiidae
   Nycteribiidae
   Streblidae

Family incertae sedis
Calyptratae incertae sedis
   Eophlebombyiidae extinct (Eocene)
Brachycera incertae sedis
   Palaeophoridae extinct (Middle Jurassic)

Diptera are insects in which the hind wings are reduced to halteres.

Table of contents
1 Synonyms and common names
2 Subdivision
3 References

Synonyms and common names

Flies, mosquitoes. In compound names containing "fly" for members of this order, the name is written as two words as in "crane fly". For insects that are members of other orders the name is written as a single word as in "butterfly".

Subdivision

There are two generally accepted sub-orders of diptera. The Nematocera are usually recognized by their elongated bodies and feathery antennae as represented by mosquitoes and crane flies. The Brachycera tend to have a more roundly proportioned body and very short antennae.

Beyond that considerable revision in the taxonomy of the flies has taken place since the introduction of modern cladistic techniques, and much remains uncertain. The secondary ranks between the sub-orders and the families are more out of practical considerations than out of any strict respect for phylogenetic classifications. (Modern cladists tend to spurn the use of any rank names.) Several of the classifications used now in this article remain paraphyletic groupings; this is particularly notable in the Orthorrapha.

When the taxobox was set up it was based on Rohdendorf's The Historical Development of Diptera because it happened to be convenient. Rohdendorf's approach was especially influenced by paleontological considerations, and this does not appear to be entirely suitable for dealing with living species. The current revision is based primarily on material on The Diptera Site, The Tree of Life Project and the Bishop Museum Catalog, with help from other sites when treatment by these sites were inconsistent or in conflict. As of 2003-08-14 that revision has been done for the Brachycera, and is being planned for the Nematocera whose presentation remains based on Rohdendorf. The symbol ¤ in the taxobox is transitional to indicate what part of the work has been completed.

Family names

The list below was originally created before the taxobox; families in the list below marked with a plus sign are extinct. Reconciliation of the names in it has progressed in conjunction with the revision of the taxobox. What remains after the revision is essentially a list of synonyms.

Nematocera

  • +Ansorgiidae
  • +Antefungivoridae
  • Baenotidae - synonym for Cecidomyiidae
  • +Boholdoyidae
  • Corethrellidae - rank in Chaoboridae
  • Cramptonomyiidae - rank in Pachyneuridae
  • +Crosaphididae
  • Dixamimidae - extinct (Middle Jurassic) rank in Chaoboridae
  • +Elliidae
  • +Gracilitipulidae
  • Grauvogeliidae
  • Hennigmatidae
  • Hyperoscelididae - rank in Canthoscelididae
  • Leptocenopidae - rank in Ceratopogonidae
  • Lestremiidae - synonym for Cecidomyiidae
  • +Limnorhyphidae
  • +Luanpingitidae
  • Macroceridae - rank in Keroplatidae
  • +Mesosciophilidae
  • Mycetobiidae - rank in Anisopodidae
  • Nadipteridae
  • Olbiogastridae - rank in Anisopodidae
  • Oreodomyiidae
  • Orphnephilidae - rank in Thaumaleidae
  • +Parapleciidae
  • Penthrediidae - rank in Bibionidae
  • Phragmoligoneuridae - synonym for extinct Protopliciidae
  • Pleciidae - rank in Bibionidae
  • +Procramptonomyiidae
  • Rhaetomyiidae extinct (Upper Triassic) rank in Chaoboridae
  • Rhyphidae - rank in Anisopodidae
  • +Serendipidae
  • +Siberhyphidae
  • +Sinotendipedidae
  • Synneuridae - rank in Canthoscelididae
  • +Zhangobiidae

Cyclorrhapha - Acalyptratae

Cyclorrhapha - Calyptratae

Cyclorrhapha - Aschiza

  • Aenigmatiidae - rank in Phoridae
  • Microdontidae - rank in Syrphidae
  • Termitoxeniidae - rank in Phoridae
  • Thaumatoxenidae - rank in Phoridae

  • Orthorrhapha
    • Acanthomeridae - rank in Pantophthalmidae
    • Apsilocephalidae - rank in Therevidae
    • Atelestidae - rank in Empedidae
    • Coenomyiidae - rank in Xylophagidae
    • Cyrtosiidae - rank in Mythicomyiidae
    • Exeretonevridae - rank in Xylophagidae
    • Glutopidae - rank in Pelecorhychidae
    • Heterostomidae - rank in Xylophagidae
    • Hilarimorphidae - rank in Empididae
    • Hybotidae - rank in Empedidae
    • Microphoridae - rank in Empedidae
    • Mydaidae - misspelling of Mydidae
    • Palaeostratiomyiidae - extinct (Middle Jurassic) rank in Rhagionidae
    • Protobrachycerontidae - extinct (Lower Jurassic) rank in Vermileonidae
    • Protocyrtidae - extinct (Middle Jurassic) rank in Heloridae, Hymenoptera - originally misidentified as Diptera
    • Rachiceridae - rank in Xylophagidae
    • Solvidae - rank in Xylomyidae
    • Stratiomyiidae - misspelling for Stratiomyidae
    • Systropodidae - rank in Bomby;idae
    • Usiidae - rank in Bomby;idae

Higher level invalid names

  • Anthomyiidea - superfamily, now in Muscoidea
  • Asilidea - rank in Asiloidea
  • Asilomorpha - synonym for infraorder Orthorrhapha
  • Bibionidea - rank in infraorder Culicomorpha
  • Bolitophilidea - invalid superfamily in Bibionomorpha
  • Bombyliidea - rank in Asiloidea
  • Borboridea - rank in family Stratiomyomorpha
  • Braulomorpha - infraorder, now in superfamily Carnoidea
  • Chironomidea - rank in infraorder Culicomorpha
  • Chloropidea - superfamily, now in Carnoidea
  • Conopidea - rank in Conopoidea
  • Culicidea - rank in infraorder Culicomorpha
  • Culicimorpha - misspelling? of Culicomorpha
  • Dixidea - rank in infraorder Culicomorpha
  • Drosophiloidea - superfamily, roughly equivalent to Ephydroidea
  • Empididea - rank in Empidoidea
  • Gastrophilidea - rank in family Oestridae
  • Glossinidea - rank in superfamily Hippoboscoidea
  • Heleomyzidea - superfamily, redistributed to Sphaeroceroidea, Sciomyzoidea and Opomyzoidea
  • Hippoboscidea - rank in superfamily Hippoboscoidea
  • Mesophantasmatidea - rank in infraorder Culicomorpha
  • Muscidea - rank in superfamily Muscoidea
  • Musidoromorpha - rank in superfamily Platypezoidea
  • Myiomorpha - infraorder, roughly equivalent to Cyclorrhapha
  • Nycteribiomorpha - rank in superfamily Hippoboscoidea
  • Oestridea - rank in supefamily Oestroidea
  • Orphnephilidea - rank in infraorder Culicomorpha
  • Pachyneuridea - invalid superfamily in Bibionomorpha
  • Phoromorpha - rank in superfamily Platypezoidea
  • Phragmoligoneuridea - extinct rank in infraorder Culicomorpha
  • Platypezidea - rank in superfamily Platypezoidea
  • Psilidea - superfamily, redistributed to Diopsoidea and Nerioidea
  • Rhaetomyiidea - rank in infraorder Culicomorpha
  • Rhyphidea - rank in infraorder Bibionomorpha
  • Sapromyzidea - superfamily, redistributed between Lauxanioidea and Tephritoidea
  • Sarcophagidea - rank in superfamily Oestroidea
  • Somatiidea - superfamily, now in Diopsoidea
  • Stratiomyidea - synonym for superfamily Stratiomyomorpha
  • Streblomorpha - rank in superfamily Hippoboscoidea
  • Syrphidea - rank in superfamily Syrphoidea
  • Tabanidea - synonym for superfamily Tabanomorpha
  • Tachinidea - rank in superfamily Oestroidea
  • Termitoxeniomorpha - rank in superfamily Platypezoidea
  • Trypetidea - superfamily, now in superfamily Tephritoidea

References

As of 2003-08-14

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