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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in " title="Central Europe">Central Europe. The republic borders " title="Poland">Poland to the north, " title="Germany">Germany to the northwest and west, " title="Austria">Austria to the south, and " title="Slovakia">Slovakia to the east. Historic " title="Prague">Prague, a major " title="Tourism">tourist attraction, is its capital and largest city. It is made up of two older regions, " title="Bohemia">Bohemia and " title="Moravia">Moravia, and part of the third one, " title="Silesia">Silesia.

The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs in " title="1993">1993 announced that the name Czechia [1], [1] is to be used in all situations other than formal official documents and the full names of government institutions, but this has not caught on in English usage. See also: " title="Czech lands">Czech lands.

Česká republika

(In Detail)

National " title="Motto">motto: None
" title="Official language">Official language " title="Czech language">Czech
" title="Capital">Capital Praha (" title="Prague">Prague)
" title="List of presidents of the Czech Republic">President " title="Václav Klaus">Václav Klaus
" title="List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic">Prime Minister" title="Vladimír Spidla">Vladimír Špidla
" title="Area">Area
 - Total
 - % water
" title="List of countries by area">Ranked 114th
" title="1 E10 m˛">78,866 km˛
2%
" title="Population">Population
 - Total (" title="2000">2000)
 - " title="Population density">Density
" title="List of countries by population">Ranked 76th
10,264,212
130/km²
" title="Independence">Independence
 - Date
Division of " title="Czechoslovakia">Czechoslovakia
" title="January 1">January 1, " title="1993">1993
" title="Currency">Currency Czech " title="Koruna">koruna
" title="Time zone">Time zone " title="Coordinated Universal Time">UTC +1
" title="List of national anthems">National anthem " title="Kde domov muj">Kde domov můj
" title="Top-level domain">Internet TLD.CZ
" title="List of country calling codes">Calling Code420

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Regions
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 Reference
10 External links

History

Main article: " title="History of the Czech Republic">History of the Czech Republic

The Czech lands emerged in the late 9th century when it was unified by the Premyslids. The " title="Monarchy">kingdom of Bohemia was a significant local power, but religious conflicts such as the " title="15th century">15th century " title="Hussite Wars">Hussite Wars and the " title="17th century">17th century " title="Thirty Years' War">Thirty Years War were devastating. It later came under the " title="Habsburg">Habsburg influence and became part of " title="Austria-Hungary">Austria-Hungary.

Following the collapse of this state after " title="World War I">World War I, the Czechs and neighbouring " title="Slovakia">Slovaks joined together and formed the independent republic of " title="Czechoslovakia">Czechoslovakia in " title="1918">1918. This new country contained a large " title="Ethnic German">German minority, which would lead to the dissolution of Czechoslovakia when " title="Nazi Germany">Nazi Germany successfully annexed the minority through the " title="Munich Agreement">Munich Agreement in " title="1938">1938, and Slovakia split off as well. The remaining Czech state was occupied by the Nazis in " title="1939">1939.

After " title="World War II">World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the " title="Soviet Union">Soviet sphere of influence. In " title="1968">1968, an invasion by " title="Warsaw Pact">Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalise party rule and create "" title="Socialism">socialism with a human face" during the " title="Prague Spring">Prague Spring. In " title="1989">1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "" title="Velvet Revolution">Velvet Revolution". On " title="January 1">January 1, " title="1993">1993, the country peacefully split in two, creating independent Czech and Slovak republics, the Czech Republic (almost always in English, though officially "Czechia") and Slovakia respectively.

The Czech Republic joined " title="NATO">NATO in " title="1999">1999 and is hoping to join the " title="European Union">European Union in " title="2004">2004.

Politics

Main article: " title="Politics of the Czech Republic">Politics of the Czech Republic

According its " title="Constitution of Czech republic"> constitution the Czech Republic is a parliamentary democracy, whose " title="Head of State">head of state is a " title="List of presidents of the Czech Republic">president, indirectly elected every five years by the parliament. The president is also granted specific powers such as the right to nominate Constitutional Court judges, dissolve parliament under certain conditions, and enact a veto on legislation. He also appoints the " title="List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic">prime minister, who sets the agenda for most foreign and domestic policy, as well the other members of the " title="Cabinet">cabinet on a proposal by the prime minister.

The Czech " title="Parliament">parliament (Parlament) is bicameral, with a Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká sněmovna) and a Senate (Senát). The 200 Chamber delegates are elected for 4-year terms, on the basis of " title="Proportional Representation">proportional representation. The 81 members of the Czech Senate serve for 6-year terms with one-third being elected every 2 years on the basis of two-round majority voting.

The country's highest court of appeals is the Supreme Court. The Constitutional Court, which rules on constitutional issues, is appointed by the president, and its members serve 10-year terms.

Regions

Main article: Regions of the Czech Republic


Map

The Czech Republic consists of 13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and one capital city (hlavní město), marked by a *:

Geography

Main article:
" title="Geography of the Czech Republic">Geography of the Czech Republic

The Czech landscape is quite varied; " title="Bohemia">Bohemia to the west consists of a basin, drained by the " title="Elbe">Elbe (Labe) and " title="Vltava">Vltava rivers, surrounded by mostly low mountains such as the " title="Sudetes">Sudeten with its part " title="Karkonosze">Krkonose, where one also finds the highest point in the country, the Snezka at 1,602 m. " title="Moravia">Moravia, the eastern part, is also quite hilly and is drained predominantly by the " title="Morava">Morava, but also contains the source of the " title="Oder River">Oder river. Water from the landlocked Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the " title="North Sea">North Sea, " title="Baltic Sea">Baltic Sea and " title="Black Sea">Black Sea.

The local " title="Climate">climate is " title="Temperate climate">temperate with warm summers and cold, cloudy, humid winters, typified by a mixture of maritime and continental influences.

Economy

Main article: " title="Economy of the Czech Republic">Economy of the Czech Republic

Basically one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Growth in " title="2000">2000-" title="2001">2001 was led by exports to the " title="European Union">EU, especially " title="Germany">Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is reviving. Uncomfortably high fiscal and current account deficits could be future problems.

Moves to complete " title="Bank">banking, " title="Telecommunication">telecommunications, and energy " title="Privatization">privatisation will add to foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the financial sector should strengthen output growth.

Demographics

Main article: " title="Demographics of the Czech Republic">Demographics of the Czech Republic

The majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic (95%) are ethnically Czech and speak " title="Czech language">Czech, a member of the " title="Slavic languages">Slavic languages. Other ethnic groups include Germans (the remainder of a once larger minority), " title="Roma and Sinti">Roma, Hungarians, Ukrainians and Poles. After the " title="1993">1993 division, some Slovaks remained in the Czech Republic and comprise roughly 2% of the current population. The border between the Czech Republic and Slovakia is open for citizens of the former Czechoslovakia.

Major denominations and their estimated percentage populations are " title="Catholicism">Roman Catholic (27%), " title="Protestantism">Protestant (1%), Czechoslovak " title="Hussite">Hussites (1%), as well as a small " title="Judaism">Jewish community. A large percentage of the Czech population claim to be " title="Atheism">atheists (59%), and the remainder describe themselves as uncertain.

Culture

Main article: Culture of the Czech Republic

Holidays
Date English Name Local Name Remarks
" title="January 1">1 JanuaryRestoration of the Czech independence Day; " title="New Year's Day">New Year's DayDen obnovy samostatného českého státu; Nový rokThe independent Czech Republic was created in " title="1993">1993, after dissolution of " title="Czechoslovakia">Czechoslovakia.
" title="March">March, " title="April">April" title="Easter">Easter MondayVelikonoční pondělíEaster is celebrated for two days (Sunday and Monday) in the Czech Republic
" title="May 1">1 May" title="Labour Day">Labour DaySvátek práce 
" title="May 8">8 MayLiberation DayDen osvobození" title="1945">1945, the end of the " title="World War II">World War II
" title="July 5">5 JulyCyril and Metoděj DayDen slovanských věrozvěstů Cyrila a MetodějeIn " title="863">863, Church teachers SS. " title="Saint Cyril">Cyril (Constantine) and Metoděj (" title="Saint Methodius">Methodius) came to " title="Great Moravia">Great Moravia to propagate Christian faith.
" title="July 6">6 JulyJan Hus DayDen upálení mistra Jana HusaThe religious reformer " title="Jan Hus">Jan Hus was " title="Execution by burning">burned at the stake in " title="1415">1415.
" title="September 28">28 SeptemberSt. Wenceslas Day (Czech Statehood Day)Den české státnostiIn 935, " title="Saint Wenceslas">St. Wenceslas, the then " title="Patron saint">patron of the Czech State, was murdered by his brother.
" title="October 28">28 OctoberIndependent Czechoslovak state DayDen vzniku samostatného československého státuCreation of Czechoslovakia in " title="1918">1918.
" title="November 17">17 NovemberStruggle for Freedom and Democracy DayDen boje za svobodu a demokraciiCommemorating the student demonstration against " title="Nazism">Nazi occupation in " title="1939">1939, and the demonstration in " title="1989">1989 that started the " title="Velvet Revolution">Velvet Revolution.
" title="December 24">24 December" title="Christmas Eve">Christmas EveŠtědrý den" title="Christmas">Christmas is celebrated on " title="Christmas Eve">Christmas Eve.
" title="December 25">25 December" title="Christmas">Christmas Day1. svátek vánoční 
" title="December 26">26 December" title="St. Stephen's Day">St. Stephen's Day (Czech: "The Second Christmas Day")2. svátek vánoční 

Miscellaneous topics

Reference

External links


" title="European Union">European Union:
" title="Austria">Austria  |  " title="Belgium">Belgium  |  " title="Denmark">Denmark  |  " title="Finland">Finland  |  " title="France">France  |  " title="Germany">Germany  |  " title="Greece">Greece  |  " title="Republic of Ireland">Ireland
" title="Italy">Italy  |  " title="Luxembourg">Luxembourg  |  " title="Netherlands">Netherlands  |  " title="Portugal">Portugal  |  " title="Spain">Spain  |  " title="Sweden">Sweden  |  " title="United Kingdom">United Kingdom

Countries acceding to membership on " title="May 1">May 1, " title="2004">2004:
" title="Cyprus">Cyprus  |  Czech Republic  |  " title="Estonia">Estonia  |  " title="Hungary">Hungary  |  " title="Latvia">Latvia  |  " title="Lithuania">Lithuania  |  " title="Malta">Malta  |  " title="Poland">Poland  |  " title="Slovakia">Slovakia  |  " title="Slovenia">Slovenia


" title="List of countries">Countries of the world  |  " title="Europe">Europe  |  " title="Council of Europe">Council of Europe
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