|Pop. density:||93 inh./km²|
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Vilnius county dates back to 1566 when it was first established. During the centuries the boundaries and the jurisdiction constantly changed.
After World War I, it was occupied by the German army. Following the start of Polish-Soviet war, in 1919 it was occupied by the Red Army, which was pushed back by the Polish Army. In 1920 it was again occupied by the Red Army, which officially recognized the sovereignty of Lithuanian Soviet Republic over the city. Lenin was probably waiting for the capture of Warsaw to occupy the rest of Lithuania. However, when the Red Army was defeated in the Battle of Warsaw, the Soviets made the decision to hand over the city to Lithuania.
The Polish commander Pilsudski was emotionally connected to the city, so he ordered his subordinate to rebel his Lithuanian-Belorussian division and capture the city, without declaring war on Lithuania.
Officially the new country was called Central Lithuania, and it also included some neighbouring Belorusian territories. After the 1922 election, the Polish majority of 65% voted for annexation of the country to Poland, which was never officially recognised by Lithuania. After the Soviet-Nazi pact (1939) Lithuania was given the Vilnius County.
Vilnius county was occupied by the Soviets in June 1940, by the Germans in 1941 and again by the Soviets in 1944, until in 1950 the county was disbanded in an administrative reform. After the independence of Lithuania it was reestablished in 1994.