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Uruk (" title="Sumerian language">Sumerian Unug and in the " title="Bible">Bible known as Erech), was an ancient city of " title="Sumer">Sumer and later " title="Babylonia">Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the " title="Euphrates">Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles SSE from " title="Baghdad">Bagdad.

It was one of the oldest and most important cities of Babylonia, and the site of a famous temple, called E-Anna, dedicated to the worship of Nana, or " title="Ishtar">Ishtar. Uruk played a very important part in the political history of the country from an early time, exercising hegemony in Babylonia at a period before the time of " title="Sargon of Akkad">Sargon. Later it was prominent in the national struggles of the Babylonians against the " title="Elamite Empire">Elamite Empire up to " title="21st century BC">2000 BC, in which it suffered severely; recollections of these conflicts are embodied in the " title="Gilgamesh">Gilgamesh epic as it has come down to us.

According to the " title="Sumerian king list">Sumerian king list, Uruk was founded by Enmerkar, who brought the official kingship with him from the city of E-ana. His father Mec-ki-aj-gacer had "entered the sea and disappeared".

External links and references

For " title="J. R. R. Tolkien">J.R.R. Tolkien's " title="Legendary creature">fictional creature, see " title="Uruk-hai">Uruk-hai.