Umayyad

The Umayyad Dynasty (ummawiyy) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Makkan clan, the Quraish. The first dynasty reigned from 661 to 750. Ironically, the Quraishi tribe from which the Umayyad's originated were bitter enemies of Muhammad.

Muawiyah had been the governor of Syria under the 3rd caliph and his kinsman, Uthman ibn Affan. After the assasination of Uthman, he was replaced by the new caliph, Ali Ben Abu Talib. Rather than relinquish his post, Muawiyah took up a rebellion against Ali. The two fought many battles, and eventually they agreed to partition the Muslim empire. However, Ali was assasinated in 661, and Muawiyah declared himself caliph of all Muslim lands. This established the Umayyad dynasty, the capital was moved to Damascus

The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid dynasty. An Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I, took over the Muslim territory in Spain and founded a new Umayyad dynasty there.

The Umayyad Caliphs

Umayyad Emirs of Cordoba Umayyad Caliphs of Cordoba See also History of Islam, Caliphate

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