Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable of Nobel) is one of Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. Four of the five prizes are awarded in Stockholm each year, but Nobel had stipulated in his will that the Peace Prize could not be awarded in Sweden. Instead the Norwegian capital of Oslo was chosen as the award site and the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which members are chosen by the Norwegian Parliament, is appointed to select the laureate for the Peace Prize.

According to the will of Alfred Nobel the prize should be awarded "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

Laureates

This is a list of the Nobel Peace Prize laureates:

; 1901 : Jean Henri Dunant (Switzerland), founder of the Red Cross and initiator of the Geneva convention. : Frédéric Passy (France), founder and president of the Societé Française pour l'arbitrage entre nations. ; 1902 : Élie Ducommun (Switzerland) and Charles Albert Gobat, honorary secretaries of the Permanent International Peace Bureau in Berne. ; 1903 : Sir William Randal Cremer (UK), secretary of the International Arbitration League. ; 1904 : Institut de droit international (Gent, Belgium). ; 1905 : Bertha Sophie Felicitas Baronin von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau (Austria), writer, honorary president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau. ; 1906 : Theodore Roosevelt (USA), president of the United States, for drawing up the peace treaty in the Russo-Japanese War. ; 1907 : Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (Italy), president of the Lombard League of Peace. : Louis Renault (France), professor of International Law. ; 1908 : Klas Pontus Arnoldson (Sweden), founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League. : Fredrik Bajer (Denmark), honorary president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau. ; 1909 : Auguste Marie Francois Beernaert (Belgium), member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage. : Paul Henribenjamin Balluet d'Estournelles de Constant, Baron de Constant de Rebecque (France), founder and president of the French parliamentary group for international arbitration. Founder of the Comité de défense des intérets nationaux et de conciliation internationale ; 1910 : Bureau International Permanent de la Paix (Permanent International Peace Bureau), Berne. ; 1911 : Tobias Michael Carel Asser (Netherlands), initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law in The Hague. : Alfred Hermann Fried (Austria), founder of Die Waffen Nieder. ; 1912 : Elihu Root (USA), for initiating various arbitration agreements. ; 1913 : Henri la Fontaine (Belgium), president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau. ; 1914-1916 : Not awarded. ; 1917 : International Red Cross, Geneva. ; 1918 : Not awarded. ; 1919 : Woodrow Wilson (USA) for founding the League of Nations. ; 1920 : Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois, president of the Council of the League of Nations.

; 1921 : Karl Hjalmar Branting (Sweden), prime minister, Swedish delegate to the Council of the League of Nations. : Christian Lous Lange (Norway), secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union ; 1922 : Fridtjof Nansen (Norway), Norwegian delegate to the League of Nations, originator of the Nansen passports for refugees. ; 1923-1924 : Not awarded. ; 1925 : Sir Austen Chamberlain (UK) for the Locarno Treaty. : Charles Gates Dawes (USA), chairman of the Allied Reparation Commission and originator of the Dawes Plan. ; 1926 : Aristide Briand (France) for the Locarno Treaties. : Gustav Stresemann (Germany) for the Locarno Treaties. ; 1927 : Ferdinand Buisson (France), founder and president of the League for Human Rights. : Ludwig Quidde (Germany), delegate to numerous peace conferences. ; 1928 : Not awarded. ; 1929 : Frank B. Kellogg (USA) for the Briand-Kellogg Pact. ; 1930 : Archbishop Lars Olof Nathan (Jonathan) Söderblom (Sweden), leader of the ecumenical movement. ; 1931 : Jane Addams (USA), international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom : Nicholas Murray Butler (USA) for promoting the Briand-Kellogg Pact. ; 1932 : Not awarded. ; 1933 : Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane) (UK), writer, member of the Executive Committee of the League of Nations and the National Peace Council. ; 1934 : Arthur Henderson (UK), chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference ; 1935 : Carl von Ossietzky (Germany), pacifist journalist. ; 1936 : Carlos Saavedra Lamas (Argentina), president of the League of Nations and mediator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia. ; 1937 : Viscount Cecil of Chelwood (Lord Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne Cecil), founder and president of the International Peace Campaign. ; 1938 : Nansen International Office For Refugees, Geneva. ; 1939-1943 : Not awarded. ; 1944 : International Committee of the Red Cross (awarded retroactively in 1945). ; 1945 : Cordell Hull (USA) for co-initiating the United Nations. ; 1946 : Emily Greene Balch (USA), honorary international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom : John R. Mott (USA), chairman of the International Missionary Council and president of the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations ; 1947 : The Friends Service Council (UK) and The American Friends Service Committee (USA), on behalf of the Religious Society of Friends, better known as the Quakers. ; 1948 : Not awarded. ; 1949 : Lord John Boyd Orr of Brechin (UK), director General Food and Agricultural Organization, president National Peace Council, president World Union of Peace Organizations. ; 1950 : Ralph Bunche for mediating in Palestine (1948). ; 1951 : Léon Jouhaux (France), president of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the UN. ; 1952 : Albert Schweitzer (France) for founding the Lambarene Hospital in Gabon. ; 1953 : American Secretary of State George Catlett Marshall for the Marshall Plan. ; 1954 : The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. ; 1955-1956 : Not awarded. ; 1957 : Lester Bowles Pearson (Canada), president of the 7th session of the United Nations General Assembly. ; 1958 : Georges Pire (Belgium), leader of L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde, a relief organization for refugees. ; 1959 : Philip Noel-Baker (UK), for his lifelong ardent work for international peace and co-operation.

; 1960 : Albert Lutuli (South Africa), president of the ANC (African National Congress). ; 1961 : Dag Hammarskjöld (Sweden), secretary-general of the UN (awarded posthumously). ; 1962 : Linus Carl Pauling (USA) for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing. ; 1963 : International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva. : League of Red Cross Societies, Geneva. ; 1964 : Martin Luther King Jr (USA), campaigner for civil rights. ; 1965 : United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF) ; 1966-1967 : Not awarded. ; 1968 : René Cassin (France), president of the European Court for Human Rights. ; 1969 : International Labour Organization (I.L.O.), Geneva. ; 1970 : Norman Borlaug (USA), for research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. ; 1971 : Willy Brandt (Germany), for West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East Germany. ; 1972 : Not awarded. ; 1973 : Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger (USA) and Foreign Minister Le Duc Tho (Vietnam, declined) for the Vietnam peace accord. ; 1974 : Séan MacBride (Ireland), president of the International Peace Bureau and the Commission of Namibia of the United Nations. : Eisaku Sato (Japan), prime minister. ; 1975 : Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (USSR) for his campaigning for human rights. ; 1976 : Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan, founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People). ; 1977 : Amnesty International, London, for its campaign against torture. ; 1978 : President Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat (Egypt) and Prime Minister Menachem Begin (Israel) for negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel. ; 1979 : Mother Teresa (India) ; 1980 : Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (Argentina), human rights ; 1981 : The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. ; 1982 : Alva Myrdal (Sweden) and Alfonso García Robles (Mexico), delegates to the United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament. ; 1983 : Lech Walesa (Poland), founder of Solidarnosc and campaigner for human rights. ; 1984 : Bishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu (South Africa) for his work against apartheid. ; 1985 : International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Boston. ; 1986 : Elie Wiesel (USA). ; 1987 : Oscar Arias Sanchez (Costa Rica) for initiating peace negotations in Central America. ; 1988 : The United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces, New York. ; 1989 : Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama. ; 1990 : President Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (USSR) for helping to end the Cold War. ; 1991 : Aung San Suu Kyi (Burma), opposition leader and human rights advocate. ; 1992 : Rigoberta Menchu Tum (Guatemala), for campaigning for human rights, especially for indigenous peoples. ; 1993 : President Nelson Mandela (South Africa) and Former President Frederik Willem de Klerk (South Africa). ; 1994 : PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat (Palestine), Foreign Minister Shimon Peres (Israel) and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (Israel), for concluding the Oslo peace accords. ; 1995 : Joseph Rotblat (Poland/UK) and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, for their efforts in the fight against nuclear arms. ; 1996 : Carlos Felipe Ximenes Belo (East Timor) and Jose Ramos-Horta (East Timor) for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor. ; 1997 : International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams (VVAF) for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines. ; 1998 : John Hume (UK) and David Trimble (UK) for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland. ; 1999 : Medecins Sans Frontieres, Brussels. ; 2000 : President Kim Dae Jung (South Korea) for his work for democracy and human rights, and in particular for peace and reconciliation with North Korea. ; 2001 : The United Nations and its secretary-general Kofi Annan (Ghana) ; 2002 : Jimmy Carter - former President of USA "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development" ; 2003: Shirin Ebadi, Iranian human rights activist and democracy campaigner

See also: Pacifism, List of pacifists

External links


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