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(" title="Flag of Japan">In Detail)
National " title="Motto">motto: None
Official " title="Language">language " title="Japanese language">Japanese
" title="Capital">Capital " title="Tokyo">Tokyo
Largest City " title="Tokyo">Tokyo
" title="Emperor of Japan">Emperor " title="Akihito">Akihito
" title="Independence">Independence" title="660s BC">660 BC
" title="Prime Minister of Japan">Prime minister" title="Koizumi Junichiro">Koizumi Junichiro
" title="Area">Area
 - Total
 - % water
" title="List of countries by area">Ranked 60th
377,835 " title="Square kilometre">km²
" title="Population">Population
 - Total (" title="2003">2003)
 - " title="Population density">Density
" title="List of countries by population">Ranked 10th
" title="Gross domestic product">GDP (base PPP)
 - Total (" title="2002">2002)
 - GDP/head
" title="Gross domestic product">Ranked 3rd
3,55 trillions $
28,000 $
" title="Currency">Currency " title="Yen">Yen
" title="Time zone">Time zone " title="Coordinated Universal Time">UTC +9
" title="List of national anthems">National anthem " title="Kimi Ga Yo">Kimi Ga Yo
" title="Top-level domain">Internet TLD.JP
" title="List of country calling codes">Calling Code81

Table of contents
1 Introduction
2 History
3 Politics
4 Prefectures
5 Geography
6 Economy
7 Demographics
8 Culture
9 Miscellaneous topics
10 External Links


Japan (Nippon/Nihon 日本, literally "the origin of the" title="Sun">sun") is a country in " title="Far East Asia">Far East Asia located between the " title="Pacific Ocean">Pacific Ocean and the " title="Sea of Japan">Sea of Japan, and east of the " title="Korean">Korean peninsula. Japan is also known as "The Land of the Rising Sun."

Japan comprises a chain of islands, the largest of which are, from south to north, Shikoku (四国), Kyushu (九州), Honshu (本州, the largest island), and Hokkaido (北海道).

The Japanese name Nippon is used on stamps and for international sporting events, while Nihon is used more often within Japan. It is from the Chinese version of the name that the English Japan was derived. The early " title="Mandarin (linguistics)">Mandarin Chinese word for Japan was recorded by " title="Marco Polo">Marco Polo as Cipangu. In Malay the Chinese word became Japang and was thus encountered by " title="Portugal">Portuguese traders in Moluccas in the 16th century. It is thought the Portuguese traders were the first to bring the word to Europe. It was first recorded in English in " title="1577">1577 spelled Giapan.


Main article: " title="History of Japan">History of Japan

People who live in Japan are descendants of those who came from the Asian continent through " title="Sakhalin">Sakhalin, " title="Korea">Korea and " title="China">China, especially around " title="Beijing">Beijing and " title="Shanghai">Shanghai, and from the South by marine route.

According to traditional Japanese history, Japan was founded in the " title="7th century BC">7th century BC by the ancestral " title="Emperor Jimmu of Japan">Emperor Jimmu. During the " title="5th century">5th and " title="6th century">6th centuries, the " title="Chinese written language">Chinese writing system and " title="Buddhism">Buddhism were introduced with other " title="China">Chinese cultures via the Korean penisula or directly from China. The " title="Emperor of Japan">emperors were the nominal " title="Rulers of Japan">rulers, but actual power was usually held by powerful court nobles, regents, or shoguns (military governors).

Ancient political structure held that, once battles between rivals were finished, the victoriuous Shogun would migrate to the capital " title="Kyoto">Heian (fully Heian-kyo-to, 'kyo-to' meaning capital city, and the full name now shortened to the suffix, '" title="Kyoto">Kyoto') to rule under the grace of the Emperor. However, in the year " title="1185">1185, general " title="Minamoto no Yoritomo">Minamoto no Yoritomo was the first to break this tradition, refusing to relocate and subsequently holding power in " title="Kamakura">Kamakura, just south of present-day " title="Yokohama">Yokohama. While this " title="Kamakura shogunate">Kamakura Shogunate was somewhat stable, Japan soon fell into warring factions, and suffered through what became known as the Warring States or " title="Sengoku Period">Sengoku Period. In the year " title="1600">1600, at the " title="Battle of Sekigahara">Battle of Sekigahara, Shogun " title="Tokugawa Ieyasu">Tokugawa Ieyasu either coopted or defeated his enemies, and formed the " title="Tokugawa shogunate">Tokugawa Shogunate in the small fishing village of " title="Edo">Edo (formerly transcribed as 'Yeddo'), what is now known as " title="Tokyo">Tokyo (eastern capital).

During the " title="16th century">16th century, traders from " title="Portugal">Portugal, the " title="Netherlands">Netherlands, " title="England">England, and " title="Spain">Spain arrived, as did " title="Christianity">Christian missionaries. During the early part of the " title="17th century">17th century, Japan's shogunate suspected that they were actually forerunners of a military conquest by European powers and ultimately barred all relations with the outside world except for severely restricted contacts with Dutch and Chinese merchants at " title="Nagasaki">Nagasaki (" title="Dejima">Dejima). This isolation lasted for 251 years, until Commodore " title="Matthew Perry (naval officer)">Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to the West with the " title="Convention of Kanagawa">Convention of Kanagawa in " title="1854">1854.

Within several years, renewed contact with the West profoundly altered Japanese society. The shogunate was forced to resign, and the emperor was restored to power. The " title="Meiji Restoration">Meiji Restoration of " title="1868">1868 initiated many reforms. The " title="Feudalism">feudal system was abolished, and numerous Western institutions were adopted, including a Western legal system and government, along with other economic, social and military reforms that transformed Japan into a world power. As results of " title="Sino-Japanese War">Sino-Japanese war and " title="Russo-Japanese War">Russo-Japanese war, Japan acquired " title="Taiwan">Taiwan, " title="Korea">Korea, and other territories.

The early " title="20th century">20th century saw Japan come under increasing influence of an expansionist military, leading to the invasion of " title="Manchuria">Manchuria, a second " title="Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)">Sino-Japanese War (" title="1937">1937). Japanese leaders felt it was necessary to attack the US naval base in " title="Pearl Harbor">Pearl Harbor (" title="1941">1941) to ensure Japanese supremacy in the Pacific. However, the entry of the " title="United States">United States into " title="World War II">World War II would slowly tilt the balance in the Pacific against the Japanese. After a long " title="Pacific Ocean">Pacific campaign, Japan lost " title="Okinawa prefecture">Okinawa in the " title="Okinawa prefecture">Ryukyu islands and was pushed back to the four main islands. The " title="United States">United States made fierce attacks on " title="Tokyo">Tokyo, " title="Osaka">Osaka, and other cities by " title="Strategic bombing">strategic bombing, and " title="Hiroshima">Hiroshima and " title="Nagasaki">Nagasaki with two atomic bombs. Japan eventually agreed to an unconditional surrender to the " title="United States">United States on " title="August 15">August 15, " title="1945">1945.

A defeated post-war Japan remained under US occupation until " title="1952">1952, whereafter it embarked on a remarkable economic recovery that returned prosperity to the islands. The " title="Okinawa prefecture">Ryukyu islands remained under US occupation until " title="1972">1972 to stabilize " title="East Asia">East Asia, and a major military presence remains there to this day. The " title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union seized the " title="Kurile Islands">Kuril islands north of Hokkaido at the end of WWII, and despite the collapse of the Soviet state and friendly relations between countries, " title="Russia">Russia has refused to return these islands.


Main article: " title="Politics of Japan">Politics of Japan

Japan is academically considered a " title="Constitutional monarchy">constitutional monarchy with a bicameral " title="Parliament">parliament, the Kokkai or " title="Diet of Japan">Diet but most Japanese feel strange about the term " title="Monarchy">monarchy and quite a few scholars argue Japan is a " title="Republic">republic. Japan has a royal family led by an " title="Emperor of Japan">Emperor, but under the current constitution he holds no power at all, not even emergency " title="Reserve power">reserve powers. The " title="Executive branch">executive branch is responsible to the Diet, consisting of a " title="Cabinet">cabinet composed of a " title="Prime Minister of Japan">prime minister and ministers of state, all of whom must be civilians. The prime minister must be a member of the Diet and is designated by his colleagues. The prime minister has the power to appoint and remove ministers, a majority of whom must be Diet members. Sovereignty, previously embodied in the emperor, is vested by the " title="Constitution of Japan">constitution in the " title="Japanese people">Japanese people, and the Emperor is defined as the symbol of the state.

The " title="Legislature">legislative branch consists of a House of Representatives (Shugi-in) of 480 seats, elected by popular vote every four years, and a House of Councillors (Sangi-in) of 247 seats, whose popularly elected members serve six-year terms. Each house contains officials elected either directly or proportionally by party. There is universal adult suffrage with a secret ballot for all elective offices.


Main article: " title="Prefectures of Japan">Prefectures of Japan

Japan is subdivided into 47 prefectures (ordered by " title="ISO 3166-2:JP">ISO 3166-2):

The order of this list is from the north to the south, which is commonly accepted in Japan.


Main article: " title="Geography of Japan">Geography of Japan

Japan, a country of islands, extends along the eastern or " title="Pacific Ocean">Pacific coast of " title="Asia">Asia. The main islands, running from north to south, are " title="Sakhalin">Karafuto (Japanese: 1679-1875), " title="Hokkaido prefecture">Hokkaido, " title="Honshu, Japan">Honshu (or the mainland), " title="Shikoku">Shikoku, and " title="Kyushu">Kyushu. Mairuppo in the " title="Kuriru">Kuriru retto is over 800km to the northeast of " title="Hokkaido prefecture">Hokkaido; " title="Naha">Naha on " title="Okinawa prefecture">Okinawa in the " title="Okinawa prefecture">Ryukyu retto is over 600 km to the southwest of Kyushu. About 3,000 smaller islands are included in the " title="Archipelago">archipelago. About 73% of the country is mountainous, with a chain running through each of the main islands. Japan's highest mountain is the famous " title="Mt. Fuji">Mount Fuji at 3,776 m . Oyakobayama, at the northern end of " title="Kuriru">Kuriru retto, is a beautifully formed snow-clad peak (2337m) rising directly out of the sea. Since so little flat area exists, many hills and mountainsides are cultivated all the way to the summits. As Japan is situated in a " title="Volcano">volcanic zone along the Pacific deeps, frequent low intensity earth tremors and occasional volcanic activity are felt throughout the islands. Destructive " title="Earthquake">earthquakes occur several times a century, often resulting in tsunamis. Hot springs are numerous and have been developed as resorts.

The Japanese Archipelago extends from north to south along the eastern coast of " title="Eurasia">Eurasian Continent or the farthermost west of " title="Pacific Ocean">Pacific Ocean. Japan belongs to the temperate zone with distinct four seasons, but varies from cool temperate in north to subtropical in south. The climate is also affected by the seasonal winds blown from the continent to the ocean in winters and vise versa in summers.

Late June and early July are a rainy season except " title="Hokkaido prefecture">Hokkaido as a seasonal rain front or baiu zensen (梅雨前線) stays above Japan. In the late summer and early autumn typhoons, grown from tropical depressions generated near the equator, track from the south-west to the north-east and often bring heavy rain.

Its varied geographical features divide Japan into six principal climatic zones.

The " title="Kuriru">Kuriru retto, attached to " title="Nemuro">Nemuro, comprise 5 'gun': Kunashiri, Etorofu, Uruppu, Rakkoshima and Choka.

Japan has ten regions. Those from north to south are " title="Hokkaido prefecture">Hokkaido, " title="Tohoku region">Tohoku region, " title="Hokuriku region">Hokuriku region, " title="Kanto region">Kanto region, " title="Chubu region">Chubu region, " title="Kansai">Kinki region (commonly called " title="Kansai">Kansai), " title="Chugoku region">Chugoku region, " title="Shikoku">Shikoku region, " title="Kyushu">Kyushu region, and " title="Okinawa prefecture">Okinawa, the main island in " title="Okinawa prefecture">Ryukyu retto. 


Main article: " title="Economy of Japan">Economy of Japan

Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of " title="Gross domestic product">GDP) have helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second largest economy power in the world only next to the US.

Notable characteristics of the economy include the working together of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors in closely-knit groups called " title="Keiretsu">keiretsu; the powerful enterprise unions and " title="Shunto">shunto; and the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labour force. Most of the these features are now eroding, however, and the economy is currently characterized by stagnation.

Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The much smaller " title="Agriculture">agricultural sector is highly subsidised and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. Usually self-sufficient in " title="Rice">rice, Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of other " title="Grain">grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. For three decades overall real economic growth had been spectacular: a 10% average in the " title="1960s">1960s, a 5% average in the " title="1970s">1970s, and a 4% average in the " title="1980s">1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the " title="1990s">1990s largely because of the after effects of overinvestment during the late 1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth have met with little success and were further hampered in " title="2000">2000-" title="2001">2001 by the slowing of the US and " title="Asia">Asian economies. Furthermore, the declining birth rate in Japan has led to speculation that more skilled immigrants will be required if Japan wishes to maintain its current level of production. The demand for cheap labor has created a boom in the illegal employment market made up mostly of fake exchange students from around the globe.

The crowding of habitable land area and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems. " title="Robot">Robotics constitutes a key long-term economic strength, with Japan possessing 410,000 of the world's 720,000 "working robots".


Main article: " title="Demographics of Japan">Demographics of Japan

Japanese society is ethnically and linguistically very homogeneous, with small populations of primarily Koreans and Chinese (including " title="Taiwanese">Taiwanese), as well as the indigenous " title="Ainu">Ainu minority on " title="Hokkaido prefecture">Hokkaido. 99% of the population speaks " title="Japanese language">Japanese as their first language.

Most Japanese people do not believe in any particular religion. Many people, especially those in younger generations, are opposed to religions for historical reasons and the development of science. From the " title="Meiji Era">Meiji Era to " title="World War II">World War II, " title="Shinto">Shinto was organized by the government. Many others are ambivalent to religions and use various religions in their life. One may visit a Shinto shrine on " title="New Year">New Year's day for the year's success and before school entrance exam to pray to pass. The same person may have a " title="Wedding">wedding at a " title="Christianity">Christian " title="Church">church and have his " title="Funeral">funeral at a " title="Buddhism"> Buddhist " title="Temple">temple.

See also: " title="Religions of Japan">Religions of Japan


Main article: " title="Culture of Japan">Culture of Japan

Miscellaneous topics

External Links



" title="List of countries">Countries of the world  |  " title="Asia">Asia

Alternate meaning: " title="Japan (band)">Japan (band)