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India

The Republic of India, located in " title="South Asia">South Asia and comprising most of the " title="Indian subcontinent">Indian subcontinent is the second most populous " title="Country">country in the world and is the world's largest " title="Democracy">democracy, with over one billion people and more than one hundred distinct languages. The Indian economy is the fourth-largest in the world, in terms of " title="Purchasing power parity">purchasing power parity. India borders " title="Bangladesh">Bangladesh, " title="Myanmar">Myanmar, " title="China">China, " title="Bhutan">Bhutan, " title="Nepal">Nepal and " title="Pakistan">Pakistan, with " title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka and the " title="Maldives">Maldives just across the Indian mainland in the " title="Indian Ocean">Indian Ocean.

The name India is derived from Sindhu, the local name for the river " title="Indus River">Indus. The " title="Hindi language">Hindi word for India is Bharat (pronounced as bhaarat), derived from the " title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit Bharatam, meaning land of Bharata (a wise and pious king of ancient times). India was also known as Hindustan (the land of the " title="Hinduism">Hindus), but this name was depopularised after independence in 1947 as India chose to be a secular country.

भारत गणराज्य
Bharat Ganarajya
(" title="Flag of India">In Detail) (" title="Emblem of India">In Detail)
National " title="Motto">motto: Satyameva Jayate
(" title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit: Truth Alone Triumphs)
" title="Official language">Official language " title="Hindi language">Hindi (" title="List of national languages of India">+17 other national languages)
" title="Capital">Capital " title="New Delhi">New Delhi
Largest City " title="Mumbai">Mumbai
" title="President of India">President " title="Abdul Kalam">APJ Abdul Kalam
" title="Prime Minister of India">Prime Minister" title="Atal Behari Vajpayee">Atal Behari Vajpayee
" title="Area">Area
 - Total
 - % water
" title="List of countries by area">Ranked 7th
" title="1 E12 mē">3,287,590 kmē
9.5%
" title="Population">Population
 - Total
 - " title="Population density">Density
" title="List of countries by population">Ranked 2nd
1,049,700,118
319.3/km²
" title="Gross domestic product">GDP
 - Total
 - GDP/head
" title="Gross domestic product">Ranked 4th
2,66 trillions $
2,540 $
" title="Independence">Independence" title="August 15">August 15, " title="1947">1947
" title="Currency">Currency Indian " title="Rupee">Rupee (INR)
" title="Time zone">Time zone " title="Coordinated Universal Time">UTC +5.30
" title="List of national anthems">National anthem " title="Jana-Gana-Mana">Jana-Gana-Mana
National song " title="Vande Mataram">Vande Mataram
" title="Top-level domain">Internet TLD.IN
" title="List of country calling codes">Calling Code91
" title="Hockey">Hockey National animal " title="Tiger">Tiger National bird " title="Peafowl">Peacock National flower " title="Lotus">Lotus -->

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 States and territories
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links

History

Main article: " title="History of India">History of India

The rock art tradition of India has been traced to about 40,000 years ago in the " title="Paleolithic">paleolithic at Bhimbetaka in Central India and other sites. The first permanent settlements in South Asia appeared about 9,000 years ago. This indigenous culture developed into the " title="Indus Valley Civilization">Indus Valley civilization (also referred to by some as the Sindhu-Sarasvati Tradition), which was at its height from around 2600 BC to 1900 BC and was one of the earliest civilisations.

Around 1500 BC, the influx of " title="Aryan">Aryan tribes from the northwest of India and to some extent their merger with the earlier inhabitants resulted in the classical " title="Vedic civilization">Vedic culture. The earlier, more widely known, viewpoint was that this influx was through a sudden and violent invasion. However, recent thinking tends to favor the idea that there may have been a more gradual migration. (See " title="Aryan invasion theory">Aryan invasion theory.) Eventually, Aryan culture, language, and religion became predominant in the region.

" title="Arab">Arab incursions starting in the " title="8th century">8th century and " title="Turkic people">Turkic in the " title="12th century">12th were followed by incursions by " title="Europe">European traders beginning in the late " title="15th century">15th century.

By subjugating the " title="Mogul Empire">Mughal empire in the " title="19th century">19th century, the " title="British Empire">British Empire had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Mostly " title="Non-violent resistance">nonviolent resistance to " title="British Raj">British colonialism under " title="Mahatma Gandhi">Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and " title="Jawaharlal Nehru">Jawaharlal Nehru led to independence in " title="1947">1947. The subcontinent was divided into the " title="Secularism">secular state of India and the smaller " title="Muslim">Muslim state of " title="Pakistan">Pakistan. Pakistan occupied two noncontiguous areas, and a " title="Civil war">civil war between West and East Pakistan in " title="1971">1971, in which India eventually intervened, resulted in the sedition of East Pakistan to form the separate nation of " title="Bangladesh">Bangladesh.

Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over " title="Kashmir">Kashmir, massive " title="Overpopulation">overpopulation, " title="Environment">environmental degradation, extensive " title="Poverty">poverty, and " title="Ethnic conflict in India">ethnic and religious strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output.

Politics

Main article: " title="Politics of India">Politics of India

India is a " title="Union">Union of " title="State">states with an increasingly " title="Federation">federal structure. Officially it is declared as The " title="Republic">Republic of India. India has as " title="Head of State">head of state a " title="President of India">president, whose duties are largely ceremonial. The president and vice president are elected indirectly for 5-year terms by a special electoral college. Their terms are staggered, and the vice president does not automatically become president following the death or removal from office of the president.

" title="Executive">Executive power is centred in the Council of Ministers (" title="Cabinet">cabinet), led by the " title="Prime Minister of India">prime minister. The president appoints the prime minister, who is designated by legislators of the political party or " title="Coalition">coalition commanding a parliamentary majority. The president then appoints subordinate ministers on the advice of the prime minister.

India's bicameral " title="Parliament">parliament consists of the upper house called 'The Council of States' (Rajya Sabha) and the lower House called 'The House of the People' (Lok Sabha), both of which were established by the " title="Constitution of India">Constitution of India. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha. The legislatures of the states and union territories elect 233 members to the Rajya Sabha, and the president appoints another 12. The elected members of the Rajya Sabha serve 6-year terms, with one-third up for election every 2 years. The Lok Sabha consists of 545 members; 543 are directly elected to 5-year terms. The other two are appointed by the president.

States and territories

Main article: " title="List of states and territories of India">States and territories of India

India is subdivided into 28 states, 6 " title="Union territory">union territories (marked by a *) and the " title="National capital territory">national capital territory of " title="Delhi">Delhi:

Map shows parts of " title="Kashmir">Kashmir claimed by India,
but controlled by " title="Pakistan">Pakistan, as part of Pakistan.

Geography

Main article
" title="Geography of India">Geography of India

Located on the " title="Indian subcontinent">Indian subcontinent, India consists roughly of three major parts; in the north the massive " title="Himalayas">Himalayas mountain range (with the highest point being the " title="Kanchenjunga">Kanchenjunga at 8,598 " title="Metre">m) and the Indo-Gangetic plain (with deserts in the western end), and in the south the extensive Deccan plateau. The latter is part of a large " title="Peninsula">peninsula in between the " title="Bay of Bengal">Bay of Bengal to the east and the " title="Arabian Sea">Arabian Sea to the west, with both being part of the greater " title="Indian Ocean">Indian Ocean.

India is home to several major rivers such as the " title="Ganges River">Ganges, the " title="Brahmaputra">Brahmaputra, the " title="Yamuna">Yamuna, the " title="Godavari River">Godavari and the " title="Krishna River">Krishna. A small part of the upper course of the name-giving " title="Indus River">Indus lies within Indian territory. The Indian " title="Climate">climate varies from tropical monsoons in the south to more " title="Temperate climate">temperate climate in the north.

Economy

Main article " title="Economy of India">Economy of India

India's economy encompasses traditional village " title="Agriculture">farming, modern " title="Agriculture">agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services, including software. In fact, India's software exports alone are around $10 billion(" title="2003">2003). However, a quarter of the population is still too poor to be able to afford an adequate diet. India's international payments position remained strong in " title="2001">2001 with adequate foreign exchange reserves, and moderately depreciating nominal exchange rates. As measured by " title="Gross domestic product">GDP in US Dollars, India's " title="2002">2002 output of $481 billion ranked it 12th in the world. As measured by GDP on " title="Purchasing power parity">Purchasing Power Parity basis, India's 2002 figure of $2.66 trillion makes it the fourth largest in the world.

Growth in " title="Manufacturing">manufacturing output has slowed, and electricity shortages continue in many regions. India has large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the " title="English language">English language; India is a major exporter of " title="Computer software">software services and software workers.

See also " title="List of software companies">List of software companies, " title="List of Indian companies">List of Indian companies

Demographics

Main article: " title="Demographics of India">Demographics of India

India is the second-most populous country in the world, with only " title="China">China having a larger population. " title="Language">Language, " title="Religion">religion, and " title="Caste">caste are major determinants of social and political organisation within the highly diverse Indian population today.

" title="Hindi language">Hindi, in the " title="Devanagari">Devanagari script, is the only official federal language and individual states and territories have adopted 17 other co-official languages. These are the " title="Dravidian languages">Dravidian languages of " title="Kannada language">Kannada, " title="Malayalam language">Malayalam, " title="Tamil language">Tamil, and " title="Telugu">Telugu, and the " title="Indo-Aryan languages">Indo-Aryan languages of " title="Bengali language">Bengali, " title="Marathi">Marathi, " title="Urdu language">Urdu, " title="Gujarati language">Gujarati, " title="Oriya language">Oriya, " title="Punjabi language">Punjabi, " title="Assamese language">Assamese, " title="Kashmiri language">Kashmiri, " title="Sindhi language">Sindhi, " title="Nepali language">Nepali, " title="Konkani">Konkani and the classical language of " title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit. Many other languages belonging to both groups are spoken as well. " title="English language">English, classified as a "official associate language", is still widely in use in law and government, particularly in the higher echelons. It enjoys a quasi-official status in the national government, and according to the Constitution, this status is to be periodically reviewed. However, its popularity in business and government affairs and its favourability as a "national language" by certain non-Hindi speaking states have led to its continued patronage.

Although 83% of the people are " title="Hinduism">Hindus, India is home to the world's second largest " title="Muslim">Muslim population. Other smaller religious minorities include " title="Christianity">Christians, " title="Sikhism">Sikhs, " title="Jainism">Jains, " title="Buddhism">Buddhists, " title="Jew">jews and " title="Zoroastrianism">Parsis.

The " title="Caste">caste system once reflected Indian occupational and religiously defined hierarchies. Traditionally, there were four broad categories of castes (varnas), though they consisted of thousands of castes and subcastes, whose relative status varied from region to region. The caste system was an important social factor for most Indians till the early 1900's. The embracement of the lower castes into the mainstream community was brought about by Mahatma Gandhi who called them "Harijans" (people of God). Presently, India has tough laws against discrimination on the basis of caste. There is a policy for the socio-economic upliftment of the erstwhile lower castes, by the provision of free education till graduation, reservation of admission seats in institutions for higher education, a 50% quota in government jobs and faster promotions. However, caste remains a significant factor in the political life of the country as well as in some social customs such as marriage.

See also " title="Religion in India">Religion in India, " title="Religion in India">Religions of India, " title="Indian family name">Indian family name

Culture

Main article: " title="Culture of India">Culture of India

Indian " title="Culture">culture is an expression of the numerous and successive waves of influences in the sub-continent with the Northern part of India being subjected to this more than the South.

In " title="Music of India">Indian music, two main forms are the " title="Carnatic music">Carnatic and the " title="Hindustani languages">Hindustani, the former from South India, a much purer form and the latter from North India deriving a lot from Muslim infuences. (See " title="Indian classical music">Indian classical music)

In Indian literature, oral and written forms prevail. Apart from the " title="Vedas">Vedas which are a sacred form of knowledge, there are other works such as the epics of " title="Ramayana">Ramayana and " title="Mahabharata">Mahabharatha, treatises such as " title="Vaastu Shastra">Vaastu Shastra in " title="Architecture">architecture and " title="Urban planning">town planning and " title="Artha Shastra">Artha Shastra in political science. " title="Urdu language">Urdu poetry is an example of a linguistic synthesis. The literature of the " title="Sangam">Sangam period in Tamil is renowned.

Many dance forms exist in India - " title="Bharata Natyam">Bharata Natyam, Odissi, Kuchipudi, Kathak, " title="Kathakali">Kathakali, etc., mostly they have a narrative form, telling stories. Other forms such as street theatre and puppetry are also found. (See Indian classical dance and Indian folk music and dance)

There are many festivals in India - " title="Diwali">Diwali, " title="Vijayadasami">Vijayadasami, " title="Pongal">Pongal, etc. Many are not only religion-based but also involve glorifying important stages in a person's life, seasonal cycles, etc.

" title="Indian science">Indian science was advanced in ancient times - " title="Aryabhata">Aryabhatta and Bhaskara were important scientists who studied planetary motion. The " title="Arabic numerals">Arabic numerals were an Indian invention.

Traditional dresses in India include the " title="Sari">Sari (" title="Sari">Saree), Salwar Kameez, Dhoti and " title="Kurta">Kurta.

In " title="Indian cuisine">Indian cuisine, rice and wheat form the staple diet. Some popular dishes include Thali- a full fledged meal, " title="Dosa">Dosa, " title="Idli">Idli and " title="Chapati">Chapati.

Movies are an integral part of everyday life in India, most notably the " title="Hindi language">Hindi, " title="Tamil language">Tamil and " title="Telugu">Telugu for their commercial bases, and " title="Bengali language">Bengali and " title="Malayalam language">Malayalam for its artistic leanings. Also see " title="Cinema of India">Cinema of India.

Though each region has a specific culture, in recent times there is a growing tendency to merge boundaries and imbibe aspects from other regions. Also, with increasing " title="Globalization">globalization, and due to the " title="Privatization">liberalization of the Indian economy in the early " title="1990s">1990s, there has been influence of Western culture. So there is Indi-pop in music , " title="Hinglish">Hinglish or Tanglish- English flavoured with terms from local language used most prominently in fields such as advertising, pizzas with indigenous spices, experimental dance and theatre forms, and so on. The invasion of " title="Cable television">cable TV has spawned an entirely new " title="Popular culture">popular culture.

Apart from these historical and context specific forms, what an Indian sees as important in Indian culture are abstract qualities such as hospitality, family values, acceptance and toleration of differences, resilience and co-existence.

India's official national sport is " title="Field hockey">field hockey, although some would assert that it is, in fact, " title="Cricket (sport)">cricket, that has become the unofficial national game. In fact, so popular is cricket that it has made India the game's financial powerhouse, even to the point that, as some observers claim, it has become India's fastest growing industry. Some other popular sports are " title="Tennis">tennis, " title="Badminton">badminton and " title="Chess">chess (chess is supposed to have originated in India). Some traditional indigenous games are " title="Kabaddi">kabaddi, " title="Gilli-danda">gilli-danda, " title="Polo">polo and, indeed, " title="Badminton">badminton, which was invented in a British club in Pune in the 16th century.

See also: " title="Indian architecture">Indian architecture

Miscellaneous topics

External links

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India is also the letter " title="I">I in the " title="NATO phonetic alphabet">NATO phonetic alphabet