Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period

 This article is part of the

History of China series.
 Shang Dynasty
 Zhou Dynasty
 Qin Dynasty
 Han Dynasty
 Three Kingdoms
 Jin Dynasty
 Southern and Northern Dynasties
 Sui Dynasty
 Tang Dynasty
 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
 Song Dynasty
 Yuan Dynasty
 Ming Dynasty
 Qing Dynasty
 History of the Republic of China
 History of the PRC (1949-1976)
 History of the PRC (1976-present)
 Timeline of Chinese History

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十國 wu3 dai4 shi2 guo2) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty in which 5 short-lived would-be dynasties in the north and more than 10 independent sovereignties mainly in the south of Chang Jiang were established.

Rulers in Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period

Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
the Five Dynasties
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Liang Dynasty 907-923
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Wen (朱溫 zhu1 wen1) 907-912 Kaiping (開平 kai1 ping2) 907-911
   Qianhua (乾化 qian2 hua4) 911-912
did not exist Mo Di (末帝 mo4 di4) Zhu Zhen (朱瑱 zhu1 zhen4) 913-923 Qianhua (乾化 qian2 hua4) 913-915
   Zhenming (貞明 zhen1 ming2) 915-921

   Longde   (龍德 long2 de2) 921-923 

Hou (Later) Tang Dynasty 923-936
Zhuang Zong (莊宗 zhuang1 zong1) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Li Cun Xu (李存勗 li3 cun2 xu4) 923-926 Tongguang (同光 tong2 guang1) 923-926
Ming Zong (明宗 ming2 zong1) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Li Si Yuan (李嗣源 li3 si4 yuan2) or Li Dan (李亶 li3 dan3) 926-933 Tiancheng (天成 tian1 cheng2) 926-930
   Changxing (長興 chang2 xing1) 930-933
did not exist Min Di (節閔帝 min3 di4) Li Cong Xu (李從厚 li3 cong2 hou4) 933-934 Yingshun (應順 ying4 shun4) 913-9115
did not exist Mo Di (末帝 mo4 di4) Li Cong Ke (李從珂 li3 cong2 ke1) 934-936 Qingtai (清泰 qing1 tai4) 934-936
Hou (Later) Jin Dynasty 936-947
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Shi Jing Tang (石敬瑭 shi4 jing4 tang2) 936-942 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 936-942
did not exist Chu Di (出帝 chu1 di4) Shi Chong Gui (石重貴 shi4 chong2 gui4) 942-947 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 942-944
   Kaiyun (開運 kai1 yun4) 944-947
Hou (Later) Han Dynasty 947-950
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Zhi Yuan (劉知遠 liu3 zhi1 yuan3) 947-948 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 947
   Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948
did not exist Yin Di (隱帝 yin3 di4) Liu Cheng You (劉承祐 liu3 cheng2 you4) 948-950 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948-950
Hou (Later) Zhou Dynasty 951-960
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Guo Wei (郭威 guo1 wei1) 951-954 Guangshun (廣順 guang3 shun4) 951-954
   Xiande    (顯德 xian3 de2)    954
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Chai Rong (柴榮 chai2 rong2 954-959 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 954-959
did not exist Gong Di (恭帝 gong1 di4) Chai Zong Xun (柴宗訓 chai2 zong1 xun4) 959-960 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 959-960
the Ten Kingdoms
Convention: use born names, noticed otherwise
Wu Yue Kingdom 904-978
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Su Wang (武肅王 wu3 su4 wang2) Qian Liu (錢鏐 qian2 liu2 904-932 Tianbao (天寶 tian1 bao3) 908-923
   Baoda    (寶大 bao3 da4)    923-925
Baozheng (寶正 bao3 zheng4) 925-932
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Wen Mu Wang (文穆王 wen2 mu4 wang2) Qian Yuan Quan (錢元瓘 qian2 yuan2 guan4) 932-941 did not exist
Cheng Zong (成宗 cheng2 zong1) Zhong Xian Wang (忠獻王 zhong1 xian4 wang2) Qian Zuo (錢佐 qian2 zuo3) 941-947 did not exist
did not exist Zhong Xun Wang (忠遜王 zhong1 xun4 wang2) Qian Zong (錢倧 qian2 zong1) 947 did not exist
did not exist Zhong Yi Wang (忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2) Qian Chu (錢俶 qian2 chu4) 947-978 did not exist
Min Kingdom 909-945 including Yin Kingdom 943-945
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Zhong Yi Wang (忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2) Wang Shen Zhi (王審知 wang2 shen3 zhi1) 909-925 did not exist
did not exist did not exist Wang Yan Han (王延翰 wang2 yan2 han4) 925-926 did not exist
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Hui Di (惠帝 hui4 di4) Wang Yan Jun (王延鈞 wang2 yan2 jun1) 926-935 Longqi (龍啟 long2 qi3) 933-935
   Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 935
Kang Zong (康宗 kang1 zong1) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Ji Peng (王繼鵬 wang2 ji4 peng2) 935-939 Tongwen (通文 tong1 wen2) 936-939
Jing Zong (景宗 jing3 zong1) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Yan Xi (王延羲 wang2 yan2 xi1) 939-944 Yonglong (永隆 yong3 long2) 939-944
did not exist Tian De Di (天德帝 tian1 de2 di4) (as Emperor of Yin) Wang Yan Zheng (王延政 wang2 yan2 zheng4) 943-945 Tiande (天德 tian1 de2) 943-945
Jing Nan or Nan Ping Kingdom 906-963
did not exist Wu Xin Wang (武信王 wu3 xin4 wang2) Gao Ji Xing (高季興 gao1 ji4 xing1) 909-928 did not exist
did not exist Wen Xian Wang (文獻王 wen2 xin4 wang2) Gao Cong Hui (高從誨 gao1 cong2 hui4) 928-948 did not exist
did not exist Zhen Yi Wang (貞懿王 yi4 wang2) Gao Bao Rong (高寶融 gao1 bao3 rong2) 948-960 did not exist
did not exist Shi Zhong (侍中 shi4 zhong1) Gao Bao Xu (高寶勗 gao1 bao3 xu4) 960-962 did not exist
did not exist did not exist Gao Ji Chong (高繼沖 gao1 ji4 chong1) 962-963 did not exist
Chu Kingdom 897-951
did not exist Wu Mo Wang (武穆王 wu3 mo4 wang2) Ma Yin (馬殷 ma3 yin1v 897-930 did not exist
did not exist Heng Yang Wang (衡陽王 heng2 yang2 wang2) Ma Xi Sheng (馬希聲 ma3 xi1 sheng1) 930-932 did not exist
did not exist Wen Zhao Wang (文昭王 wen2 zhao1 wang2) Ma Xi Fan (馬希範 ma3 xi1 fan4) 932-947 did not exist
did not exist Fei Wang (廢王 fei4 wang2) Ma Xi Guang (馬希廣 ma3 xi1 guang3) 947-950 did not exist
did not exist Gong Xiao Wang (恭孝王 gong1 xiao4 wang2) Ma Xi E (馬希萼 ma3 xi1 e4) 950 did not exist
did not exist did not exist Ma Xi Chong (馬希崇 ma3 xi1 chong2) 950-951 did not exist
Wu Kingdom 904-937
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Xiao Wu Di (孝武帝 xiao4 wu3 di4) Yang Xing Mi (楊行密 yang2 xing2 mi4) 904-905 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 904-905
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Jing Di (景帝 jing3 di4) Yang Wo (楊渥 yang2 wo4) 905-908 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 905-908
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Xuan Di (宣帝 xuan1 di4) Yang Long Yan (楊隆演 yang2 long2 yan3) 908-921 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 908-919
   Wuyi (武義 wu3 yi4) 919-921
did not exist Rui Di (睿帝 rui4 di4) Yang Pu (楊溥 yang2 pu3) 921-937 Shunyi (順義 shun4 yi4) 921-927
   Qianzhen (乾貞 qian2 zhen1) 927-929
Dahe (大和 da4 he2) 929-935
Tianzuo (天祚 tian1 zuo4) 935-937
Nan (Southern) Tang Dynasty 937-975
Convention for this kingdom only : Nan (Southern) Tang + posthumous names. Hou Zhu was referred as Li Hou Zhu (李後主 li3 hou4 zhu3.
Xian Zhu (先主 xian1 zhu3) or Lie Zu (烈祖 lie4 zu3) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Li Bian (李(曰 on top of 弁) li3 bian4) 937-943 Shengyuan (昇元 sheng1 yuan2) 937-943
Zhong Zhu (中主 zhong1 zhu3) or Yuan Zong (元宗 yuan2 zong1v too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Li Jing (李璟 li3 jing3) 943-961 Baoda (保大 bao3 da4) 943-958
   Jiaotai (交泰 jiao1 tai4) 958
Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 958
Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 zhu3) Wu Wang (武王 wu3 wang2 Li Yu (李煜 li3 yu4 961-975 did not exist
Nan (Southern) Han Kingdom 917-971
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Tian Huang Da Di (天皇大帝 tian1 huang2 da4 di4) Liu Yan (劉巖 liu3 yan2) or Liu Yan (劉(龍 on top of 天) liu3 yan3) 917-925 Qianheng (乾亨 qian2 heng1) 917-925
   Bailong (白龍 bai2 long2) 925-928
Dayou (大有 da4 you3) 928-941
did not exist Shang Di (殤帝 shang1 di4) Liu Fen (劉玢 liu3 fen1) 941-943 Guangtian (光天 guag1 tian1) 941-943
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Cheng (劉晟 liu3 cheng2) 943-958 Yingqian (應乾 ying4 qian2) 943
   Qianhe (乾和 qian4 he2) 943-958

Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 zhu3) did not exist Liu Chang (劉鋹 liu3 chang3) 958-971 Dabao (大寶 da4 bao3) 958-971
Bei (Northern) Han Kingdom 951-979
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Shen Wu Di (神武帝 shen2 wu3 di4) Liu Min (劉旻 liu3 min2) 951-954 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 951-954
Rui Zong (睿宗 rui4 zong1) Xiao He Di (孝和帝 xiao4 he2 di4v Liu Cheng Jun (劉承鈞 liu3 cheng2 jun1) 954-970 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 954-957
   Tianhui (天會 tian1 hui4) 957-970
Shao Zhu (少主 shao4 zhu3) Did not exist Liu Ji En (劉繼恩 liu3 ji4 en1) 970 did not exist
did not exist Ying Wu Di (英武帝 ying1 wu3 di4) Liu Ji Yuan (劉繼元 liu3 ji4 yuan2) 970-982 Guangyun (廣運 guang3 yun4) 970-982
Qian (Former) Shu Kingdom 907 - 925
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Jian (王建 wang2 jian4) 907-918 Tianfu (天復 tian1 fu4) 907
   Wucheng  (武成 wu3 cheng22) 908-910
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) 911-915
Tongzheng (通正 tong1 zheng4) 916
Tianhan (天漢 tian1 han4) 917
Guangtian (光天 guang1 tian1) 918
Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 zhu3) did not exist Wang Yan (王衍 wang2 yan3) 918-925 Qiande (乾德 qian2 de2) 918-925
   Xiankang (咸康 xian2 kang1) 925
Hou (Later) Shu Kingdom 934 - 965
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Meng Zhi Xiang (孟知祥 meng4 zhi1 xiang2) 934 Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934
Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 zhu3) did not exist Meng Chang (孟昶 meng4 chang3) 938-965 Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934-938
   Guangzheng (廣政 guang3 zheng4) 938-965



local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period but traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms
Name of Posts Born Names Period on post
Wuping and Hunan (節度 jie2 du4) (similar to thema of the Byzantine Empire) 950-963
Wuping strategos (correct English translation?) (武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3) Liu Yan (劉言 liu3 yan2) 950-953
Wuping strategos (correct English translation?) (武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3) Wang Kui (王逵 wang2 kui2) or Wang Jin Kui (王進逵 wang2 jin4 kui2) 953-956
Hunan strategos (correct English translation?) (湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3) Zhou Xing Feng (周行逢 zhao1 xing2 feng2) 956-962
Hunan strategos (correct English translation?) (湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3) Zhou Bao Quan (周保權 zhao1 bao3 quan2) 962-963
Quanzhang (節度jie2 du4) (similar to thema of the Byzantine Empire) 945-978
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?) (泉漳都指揮使 quan2 zhang1 du1 zhi3 hui1 shi3) Liu Cong Xiao (留從效 liu2 cong2 xiao4) 945-962
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?) (泉漳留守 quan2 zhang1 liu2 shou3) Liu Shao Zi (留紹鎡 liu2 shao4 zi1) 962
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?) (泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3) Zhang Han Si (張漢思 zhang1 han4 si1) 962-963
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?) (泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3) Chen Hong Jin (陳洪進 chen2 hong2 jin4) 963-978

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