Algeria

The '\People's Democratic Republic of Algeria' is a country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea in the north, Tunisia in the northeast, Libya in the east, Niger in the southeast, Mali and Mauritania in the southwest, and Morocco in the west (the Moroccan border is closed [1]).

Al Jumhūrīyah al Jazā'irīyah
ad Dīmuqrāţīyah ash Sha'bīyah
(In Detail)
National motto: None
Official language Arabic
Capital Algiers
PresidentAbdelaziz Bouteflika
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 11th
2,381,740 km²
Negligible
Population
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 34th
32,818,500
13.3/km²
Independence
 - Date
From France
July 5, 1962
Currency Algerian dinar
Time zone UTC +1
National anthem Kassaman
Internet TLD .DZ
Calling Code213

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Provinces
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links

History

Main article: History of Algeria

The native Berber population of Algeria has been under the rule of foreign occupants for most of the last 3000 years. The Phoenicians (1000 BC) and the Roman Republic (200 BC) were the most important of these, until the coming of the Arabs in the 8th century.

Formally a part of the Ottoman Empire, Algeria's coast was used as a base for pirates. This was ended by a French invasion in 1830, followed by a complete conquest of Algeria several years later. In 1954, a guerilla war began to make Algeria independent, which succeeded in 1962.

In the 1990s, Algeria experienced resistance from Islamic fundamentalists, whose political parties were blocked from elections.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Algeria

The head of state is the political association may be formed if it is "based on differences in religion, language, race gender or region." The head of state is the President of the republic, who is elected to a 5-year term, renewable once. Algeria has universal suffrage. The President is the head of the Council of Ministers and of the High Security Council. He appoints the Prime Minister who also is the head of government. The Prime Minister appoints the Council of Ministers.

The Algerian parliament is bicameral, consisting of a lower chamber, the National People's Assembly (APN), with 380 members and an upper chamber, the Council of Nation, with 144 members. The APN is elected every 5 years.

Provinces

Main article: Provinces of Algeria

Algeria is divided into 48 wilayas, or provinces:

  • Adrar
  • Ain Defla
  • Ain Temouchent
  • Alger
  • Annaba
  • Batna
  • Bechar
  • Bejaia
  • Biskra
  • Blida
  • Bordj Bou Arreridj
  • Bouira
  • Boumerdes
  • Chlef
  • Constantine
  • Djelfa
  • El Bayadh
  • El Oued
  • El Tarf
  • Ghardaia
  • Guelma
  • Illizi
  • Jijel
  • Khenchela
  • Laghouat
  • Mascara
  • Medea
  • Mila
  • Mostaganem
  • M'Sila
  • Naama
  • Oran
  • Ouargla
  • Oum el Bouaghi
  • Relizane
  • Saida
  • Setif
  • Sidi Bel Abbes
  • Skikda
  • Souk Ahras
  • Tamanghasset
  • Tebessa
  • Tiaret
  • Tindouf
  • Tipaza
  • Tissemsilt
  • Tizi Ouzou
  • Tlemcen

Geography

Main article: Geography of Algeria

Most of the coastal area is hilly, sometimes even mountainous, and there are few good harbours. The area just south of the coast, known as the Tell, is fertile. Further south is the Atlas mountain range and the Sahara desert. Algiers, Oran and Constantine are the main cities.

Algeria's climate is arid and hot, although the coastal climate is mild, and the winters in the mountainous areas can be severe. Algeria is prone to sirocco, a hot dust- and sand-laden wind especially common in summer.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Algeria

The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil reserves.

Algeria has massive foreign debts. Algeria's financial and economic indicators improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria's finances in 2000 and 2001 benefited from the temporary spike in oil prices and the government's tight fiscal policy, leading to a large increase in the trade surplus, record highs in foreign exchange reserves, and reduction in foreign debt. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. In 2001, the government signed an Association Treaty with the European Union that will eventually lower tariffs and increase trade.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Algeria

About 90% of the Algerians lives in the northern, coastal area, although there are about 1.5 million Bedouin living in the southern desert. The mixed Arab and Berber population is mostly Islamic (99%); other religions are restricted to small groups of foreign citizens.

The official language is Arabic, while French and Berber languages are also still spoken.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Algeria

Rai, a local music form, has great popularity in Algeria, and enjoys some popularity abroad as well, notably in France, where a large number of Algerians lives.

See also: Music of Algeria

Miscellaneous topics

External links


Countries of the world  |  Africa


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