Académie française

The Académie française (French Academy) is a learned body founded in 1570, when King Charles IX granted the charter of an "academy of Music and Poetry" to the poet Antoine de Baïf and a musician named Gourville, who named it the Académie française. The Académie functioned informally until February 10, 1635, when Armand-Jean Cardinal Richelieu (minister of Louis XIII) formalised it into a national academy for the literati, and limited the number of its members. In anticipation of this most of the first members were named during 1634.

The Académie is the French official authority on the usages, vocabulary, and grammar of the French language, although its recommendations carry no legal power and are sometimes disregarded even by governmental authorities. It also encourages the use of French worldwide and awards literary prizes.

As French culture and language have come under increasing pressure with the widespread availability of English media, the Académie has tried to prevent the anglicisation of the French language. It is as a direct result of a decision of the Académie that the French word for "computer" is "ordinateur" and that the field of study dealing with computers is known as "informatique."

The Académie has forty seats, and all members are elected to a specific seat for life. They are known as the immortels (immortals) because of the device, À l'immortalité appearing on the seal granted to the Académie by Cardinal Richelieu. Famous current and former immortels include author Victor Hugo, author and director Marcel Pagnol, poet and filmmaker Jean Cocteau, playwright Eugène Ionesco, anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, and physicist Louis-Victor de Broglie.

The Académie is charged with publishing an official dictionary of the French language. It has done so in 1694, 1718, 1740, 1762, 1798, 1835, 1878, and in 1932-1935. The Académie continues work on the most recent (ninth) edition of the dictionary, of which the first volume (A to Enzyme) appeared in 1992, and the second volume (Éocène to Mappemonde) appeared in 2000.

Table of contents
1 Current members of the Académie française
2 Members listed historically by seat
3 External link

Current members of the Académie française

Listed by seat
  1. René Rémond, elected 1998
  2. Hector Bianciotti, elected 1996
  3. Jean-Denis Bredin, elected 1989
  4. Jean-Marie Lustiger, elected 1995
  5. vacant
  6. Marc Fumaroli, elected 1995
  7. Jacqueline Worms de Romilly, elected 1988
  8. Michel Déon, elected 1978
  9. Alain Decaux, elected 1979
  10. Florence Delay, elected 2000
  11. Gabriel de Broglie, elected 2001
  12. Jean d'Ormesson, elected 1973
  13. Pierre Messmer, elected 1999
  14. Hélène Carrère d'Encausse, elected 1990
  15. Frédéric Vitoux, elected 2001
  16. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, elected 2003
  17. Érik Orsenna, elected 1998
  18. Michel Serres, elected 1990
  19. Pierre Moinot, elected 1982
  20. Angelo Rinaldi, elected 2001
  21. Félicien Marceau, elected 1975
  22. René de Obaldia, elected 1999
  23. Pierre Rosenberg, elected 1995
  24. Jean-François Revel, elected 1997
  25. Jean Bernard, elected 1975
  26. Jean-Marie Rouart, elected 1997
  27. Pierre Nora, elected 2001
  28. Henri Troyat, elected 1959
  29. Claude Lévi-Strauss, elected 1973
  30. Maurice Druon, elected 1966
  31. Jean Dutourd, elected 1978
  32. vacant
  33. Michel Mohrt, elected 1985
  34. François Cheng, elected 2002
  35. Yves Pouliquen, elected 2001
  36. Jean-François Deniau, elected 1992
  37. Robert-Ambroise-Marie Carré, elected 1975
  38. François Jacob, elected 1996
  39. Bertrand Poirot-Delpech, elected 1986
  40. Pierre-Jean Rémy, elected 1988

Members listed historically by seat

(this section is under construction)

Seat 1

  1. René Rémond, elected 1998

Seat 2

  1. Hector Bianciotti, elected 1996

Seat 3

  1. Jean-Denis Bredin, elected 1989

Seat 4

  1. Jean-Marie Lustiger, elected 1995

Seat 5

  1. Jean Ogier de Gombauld, 1634 - 1666, poet, playwright and novellist
  2. Paul Tallement le Jeune, 1666 - 1712, ecclesiastic
  3. Antoine Danchet, 1712 - 1748, playwright and poet
  4. Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gresset, 1748 - 1777, playwright
  5. Claude-François-Xavier Millot, 1777 - 1785, ecclesiastic
  6. André Morellet, 1785 - 1819, ecclesiastic
  7. Pierre-Édouard Lémontey, 1819 - 1826, politician and lawyer
  8. Joseph Fourier, 1826 - 1830, mathematician and phycisist
  9. Victor Cousin, 1830 - 1867, politician and philosopher
  10. Jules Favre, 1867- 1880, politician and lawyer
  11. Edmond Rousse, 1880 - 1906, lawyer
  12. Pierre de Ségur, 1907 - 1916, historian
  13. Robert de Flers, 1920 - 1927, dramatist and journalist
  14. Louis Madelin, 1927 - 1956, historian
  15. Robert Kemp, 1956 - 1959, literary and dramatic critic
  16. René Huyghe, 1960 - 1997, art historian and essayist
  17. Georges Vedel, 1998 - 2002, magistrate
  18. vacant, the election scheduled 2004-01-15 failed to fill the seat; the leading candidates were Roger-Gérard Schwartzenberg and Jean-Claude Pecker

Seat 6

  1. Marc Fumaroli, elected 1995

Seat 7

  1. Jacqueline Worms de Romilly, elected 1988

Seat 8

  1. Claude de Malleville, 1634 - 1647, poet
  2. Jean Ballesdens, 1648 - 1675, lawyer
  3. Géraud de Cordemoy, 1675 - 1684, philosopher and historian
  4. Jean-Louis Bergeret, 1684 - 1694, lawyer
  5. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre, 1694 - 1743, ecclesiastic
  6. Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, 1743 - 1759, geometer and astronomer
  7. Jean-Jacques Lefranc, marquis de Pompignan, 1759 - 1784, magistrate and economist
  8. Jean-Sifrein Maury, 1784 - excluded in reorginization of 1803, see also seat 15, ecclesiastic and politician
  9. Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély, 1803 - 1819, politician and lawyer
  10. Pierre-Simon de Laplace, 1816 - 1827, politician, mathematician and astronomer
  11. Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard, 1827 - 1845, politician
  12. Charles de Rémusat, 1846 - 1875, politician and philosopher
  13. Jules Simon, 1875 - 1896, politician, historian of philosophy, philosopher and essayist
  14. Albert de Mun, 1897 - 1914, politician, essayist and soldier
  15. Alfred Baudrillart, 1918 - 1942, ecclesiastic and historian
  16. Octave Aubry, 1946 - 1946, historian and senior bureaucrat
  17. Édouard Herriot, 1946 - 1957, politician, essayist and literary historian
  18. Jean Rostand, 1959 - 1977, biologist, historian of science, philosopher and historian
  19. Michel Déon, elected 1978, novelist

Seat 9

  1. Alain Decaux, elected 1979

Seat 10

  1. Florence Delay, elected 2000

Seat 11

  1. Gabriel de Broglie, elected 2001

Seat 12

  1. Jean d'Ormesson, elected 1973

Seat 13

  1. Claude-Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac, 1634 - 1638, grammarian and mathematician
  2. François de La Mothe-Le-Vayer, 1639 - 1672, critic, grammarian and philosopher
  3. Jean Racine, 1672 - 1699, playwright, mathematician, phycisist, medical doctor
  4. Jean-Baptiste-Henri de Valincour, 1699 - 1730, historiographer and admiral
  5. Jean-François Leriget de La Faye, 1730 - 1731, politician
  6. Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon, 1731 - 1762, playwright
  7. Claude-Henri de Fusée de Voisenon, 1762 - 1775, ecclesiastic, playwright and poet
  8. Jean de Dieu-Raymond Boisgelin de Cucé, 1776 - 1804, ecclesiastic
  9. Jean-Baptiste Dureau de la Malle, 1804 - 1807, translator
  10. Louis-Benoît Picard, 1807 - 1828, comedian, poet, novelist and playwright
  11. Antoine-Vincent Arnault, 1829 - 1834, poet, fabulist and playwright - see also seat 16
  12. Eugène Scribe, 1834 - 1861, playwright
  13. Octave Feuillet, 1862 - 1890, novelist and playwright
  14. Pierre Loti, 1891 - 1923, novelist and soldier
  15. Albert Besnard, 1924 - 1934, painter and engraver
  16. Louis Gillet, 1935 - 1943, historian of art and litterature
  17. Paul Claudel, 1946 - 1955, poet, playwright, novelist and diplomat
  18. Wladimir d' Ormesson, 1956 - 1973, politician, chronicler and novellist
  19. Maurice Schumann, 1974 - 1998, politician, essayist, journalist, novelist and historian
  20. Pierre Messmer, elected 1999, senior bureaucrat and politician

Seat 14

  1. François Maynard, 1634-1646, magistrate and poet
  2. Pierre Corneille, 1647-1684, playwright and lawyer
  3. Thomas Corneille, 1684-1709, playwright
  4. Antoine Houdar de La Motte, 1710-1731, playwright
  5. Michel-Celse-Roger de Bussy-Rabutin, 1732-1736, ecclesiastic
  6. Étienne Lauréault de Foncemagne, 1736-1779, ecclesiastic
  7. Michel-Paul-Gui de Chabanon, 1779-1792, playwright
  8. Jacques-André Naigeon, 1803-1810, encyclopedist
  9. Népomucène Lemercier, 1810-1840, poet and playwright
  10. Victor Hugo, 1841-1885, poet, playwright and novelist
  11. Charles Leconte de Lisle, 1886-1894, poet and playwright
  12. Henry Houssaye, 1894-1911, historian and novelist
  13. Louis-Hubert Lyautey, 1912-1934, soldier
  14. Louis Franchet d'Espèrey, 1934-1942, politician and soldier
  15. Robert d'Harcourt, 1946-1965, literary historian and essayist
  16. Jean Mistler, 1966-1988, novelist, essayist, literary historian, music critic and politician
  17. Hélène Carrère d'Encausse, elected 1990, historian

Seat 15

  1. Guillaume Bautru, 1634 - 1665, politician
  2. Jacques Testu de Belval, 1665 - 1706, ecclesiastic and poet
  3. François-Joseph de Beaupoil de Sainte-Aulaire, 1706 - 1742, soldier and poet
  4. Jean-Jacques Dortous de Mairan, 1743 - 1771, physicist and mathematician
  5. François Arnaud, 1771 - 1784, ecclesiastic
  6. Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target, 1785 - 1806, magistrate
  7. Jean-Sifrein Maury, 1806 - excluded by ordonance 1816, ecclesiastic and politician; see also seat 8
  8. François-Xavier-Marc-Antoine de Montesquiou-Fézensac, 1816 - 1832, ecclesiastic and politician
  9. Antoine Jay, 1832 - 1854, politician
  10. Ustazade Silvestre de Sacy, 1854 - 1879, literary critic
  11. Eugène Labiche, 1880 - 1888, playwright and novelist
  12. Henri Meilhac, 1888 - 1897, playwright
  13. Henri Lavedan, 1898 - 1940, playwright and novelist
  14. Ernest Seillière, 1946 - 1955, historian of literature and of philosophy, and essayist
  15. André Chamson, 1956 - 1983, novelist, essayist and historian
  16. Fernand Braudel, 1984 - 1985, historian of civilizations
  17. Jacques Laurent, 1986 - 2000, novelist, essayist and journalist
  18. Frédéric Vitoux, elected 2001, writer and journalist

Seat 16

  1. Jean Sirmond, 1634-1649, historiographer
  2. Jean de Montereul, 1649-1651, ecclesiastic
  3. François Tallemant l'Aîné, 1651-1693, ecclesiastic
  4. Simon de la Loubère, 1693-1729, diplomat and poet
  5. Claude Sallier, 1729-1761, ecclesiastic and philologist
  6. Jean-Gilles du Coëtlosquet, 1761-1784, ecclesiastic
  7. Anne-Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac, 1784-1798, politician
  8. Antoine-Vincent Arnault, 1803, excluded by ordonance 1816, reelected in 1829 to seat 13, poet, fabulist and playwright
  9. Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu, 1816-1822, politician
  10. Bon-Joseph Dacier, 1822-1833, philologist
  11. Pierre-François Tissot, 1833-1854, poet and historian
  12. Félix Dupanloup, 1854-1878, ecclesiastic
  13. Edme-Armand-Gaston d'Audiffret-Pasquier, 1878-1905, politician
  14. Alexandre Ribot, 1906-1923, politician, lawyer, magistrate and jurist
  15. Henri Robert, 1923-1936, lawyer and historian
  16. Charles Maurras, 1938, not excluded, but seat "declared vacant" for Vichy collaboration in 1945, journalist, politician, essayist and poet
  17. Antoine de Lévis Mirepoix, 1953-1981, novelist, historian and essayist
  18. Léopold Sédar Senghor, 1983-2001, head of state (Sénégal), politician, poet and essayist
  19. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, elected 2003, former president of France

Seat 17

  1. François de Cauvigny de Colomby, 1634 - 1649, poet
  2. François Tristan l'Hermite, 1649 - 1655, playwright and poet
  3. Hippolyte-Jules Pilet de La Mesnardière, 1655 - 1663, critic, poet and historian
  4. François-Honorat de Beauvilliers, duc de Saint-Aignan, 1663 - 1687, soldier
  5. François-Timoléon de Choisy, 1687 - 1724, ecclesiastic
  6. Antoine Portail, 1724 - 1736, politician
  7. Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée, 1736 - 1754, playwright
  8. Jean-Pierre de Bougainville, 1754 - 1763, historian
  9. Jean-François Marmontel, 1763 - 1799, philosopher and essayist
  10. Louis-Marcelin de Fontanes, 1803 - 1821, politician, poet and journalist
  11. Abel-François Villemain, 1821 - 1870, politician and literary critic
  12. Émile Littré, 1871 - 1881, philologist and philosopher
  13. Louis Pasteur, 1881 - 1895, chemist
  14. Gaston Paris, 1896 - 1903, philologist and literary historian
  15. Frédéric Masson, 1903 - 1923, historian
  16. Georges Lecomte, 1924 - 1958, novelist, essayist, art critic and historian
  17. Jean Delay, 1959 - 1987, psychiatrist, essayist and novelist
  18. Jacques-Yves Cousteau, 1988 - 1997, oceanographer, cineast and essayist
  19. Érik Orsenna, elected 1998, politician and novelist

Seat 18

  1. Michel Serres, elected 1990

Seat 19

  1. Pierre Moinot, elected 1982

Seat 20

  1. Angelo Rinaldi, elected 2001

Seat 21

  1. Félicien Marceau, elected 1975

Seat 22

  1. René de Obaldia, elected 1999

Seat 23

  1. Pierre Rosenberg, elected 1995

Seat 24

  1. Jean-François Revel, elected 1997

Seat 25

  1. Claude de L'Estoile, 1634 - 1652, playwright and poet
  2. Armand de Camboust, duc de Coislin, 1652 - 1702, soldier
  3. Pierre de Camboust, duc de Coislin, 1702 - 1710, ??
  4. Henri-Charles de Coislin, 1710 - 1732, ecclesiastic
  5. Jean-Baptiste Surian, 1733 - 1754, ecclesiastic
  6. Jean Le Rond, dit d'Alembert, 1754 - 1783, philosopher and mathematician
  7. Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, 1783, excluded in 1803 reorganization, biographer
  8. Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis, 1803 - 1807, politician, philosopher and lawyer
  9. Pierre Laujon, 1807 - 1811, poet and songwriter
  10. Charles-Guillaume Étienne, 1811 - 1816. Excluded by ordonnance; see also seat 32, poet and playwright
  11. Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, (2nd time), 1816 - 1817
  12. Jean-Louis Laya, 1817 - 1833, poet and playwright
  13. Charles Nodier, 1833 - 1844, novelist, poet and grammarian
  14. Prosper Mérimée, 1844 - 1870, novelist
  15. Louis de Loménie, 1871 - 1878, essayist
  16. Hippolyte Taine, 1878 - 1893, essayist and historian
  17. Albert Sorel, 1894 - 1906, historian
  18. Maurice Donnay, 1907 - 1945, playwright
  19. Marcel Pagnol, 1946 - 1974, playwright, cineast and novelist
  20. Jean Bernard, elected 1975, medical doctor

Seat 26

  1. Jean-Marie Rouart, elected 1997

Seat 27

  1. Pierre Nora, elected 2001

Seat 28

  1. Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac, 1634 - 1654, essayist
  2. Paul-Philippe Hardouin de Péréfixe, 1654 - 1670, ecclesiastic and historian
  3. François de Harlay de Champvallon, 1671 - 1695, ecclesiastic
  4. André Dacier, 1695 - 1722, philologist and translator
  5. Guillaume Dubois, 1722 - 1723, ecclesiastic and politician
  6. Charles-Jean-François Hénault, 1723 - 1770, magistrate
  7. Charles-Just de Beauvau, 1771 - 1793, politician and soldier
  8. Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai, 1803 - 1838, politician and lawyer; removed by ordonance
  9. Antoine-François-Claude Ferrand, 1816 - 1825, magistrate, poet, historian and playwright
  10. Casimir Delavigne, 1825 - 1843, poet and playwright
  11. Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve, 1844 - 1869, essayist and poet
  12. Jules Janin, 1870 - 1874, novelist and critic
  13. John Lemoinne, 1875 - 1892, diplomat and journalist
  14. Ferdinand Brunetière, 1893 - 1906, literary critic, historian of literature and essayist
  15. Henri Barboux, 1907]] - 1910, lawyer
  16. Henry Roujon, 1911 - 1914, senior bureaucrat, essayist and novelist
  17. Louis Barthou, 1918 - 1934, politician, magistrate, historian and historian of literature; assasinated
  18. Claude Farrère, 1935 - 1957, novelist, essayist and historian
  19. Henri Troyat, elected 1959, novelist, historian of literature, historian; currently dean of the Académie

Seat 29

  1. Claude Lévi-Strauss, elected 1973

Seat 30

  1. Maurice Druon, elected 1966

Seat 31

  1. Jean Dutourd, elected 1978

Seat 32

  1. Claude Favre de Vaugelas, 1634-1650, grammarian
  2. Georges de Scudéry, 1650-1667, novelist, playwright and poet
  3. Philippe de Dangeau, 1667-1720, soldier, governor and diplomat
  4. Louis-François-Armand du Plessis de Richelieu, 1720-1788, soldier, libertine and politician
  5. François-Henri d'Harcourt, 1788-1802, soldier
  6. Lucien Bonaparte, 1803-1816, politician. Excluded by ordonnance.
  7. Louis-Simon Auger, 1816-1829, journalist and playwright
  8. Charles-Guillaume Étienne, 1829-1845 (see also seat 25), poet and playwright
  9. Alfred de Vigny, 1845-1863, poet
  10. Camille Doucet, 1865-1895, poet and playwright
  11. Charles Costa de Beauregard, 1896-1909, historian and politician
  12. Hippolyte Langlois, 1911-1912, soldier
  13. Émile Boutroux, 1912-1921, philosopher and historian of philosophy
  14. Pierre de Nolhac, 1922-1936, historian, art historian and poet
  15. Georges Grente, 1936-1959, ecclesiastic, historian and essayist
  16. Henri Massis, 1960-1970, essayist, literary critic and literary historian
  17. Georges Izard, 1971-1973, politician, lawyer, journalist and essayist
  18. Robert Aron, 1974-1975, historian and essayist
  19. Maurice Rheims, 1976-2003, novelist and art historian
  20. vacant, election scheduled 2004-03-25

Seat 33

  1. Michel Mohrt, elected 1985

Seat 34

  1. François Cheng, elected 2002

Seat 35

  1. Yves Pouliquen, elected 2001

Seat 36

  1. Jean-François Deniau, elected 1992

Seat 37

  1. Robert-Ambroise-Marie Carré, elected 1975

Seat 38

  1. François Jacob, elected 1996

Seat 39

  1. Bertrand Poirot-Delpech, elected 1986

Seat 40

  1. Daniel de Priézac, 1639 - 1662, law professor
  2. Michel Le Clerc, 1662 - 1691, lawyer
  3. Jacques de Tourreil, 1692 - 1714, translater
  4. Jean-Roland Mallet, 1714 - 1736, royal valet
  5. Jean-François Boyer, 1736 - 1755, ecclesiastic
  6. Nicolas Thyrel de Boismont, 1755- 1786, ecclesiastic
  7. Claude-Carloman de Rulhière, 1787 - 1791, diplomat, poet and historian
  8. Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis, 1803 - 1808, medical doctor and physiologist
  9. Antoine-Louis-Claude Destutt de Tracy, 1808 - 1836, philosopher
  10. François Guizot, 1836 - 1874, politician and historian
  11. Jean-Baptiste Dumas, 1875 - 1884, politician and chemist
  12. Joseph Bertrand, 1884 - 1900, mathematician, historian of science
  13. Marcellin Berthelot, 1900 - 1907, politician, chemist, essayist, historian of science
  14. Francis Charmes, 1908 - 1916, diplomat and journalist
  15. Jules Cambon, 1918 - 1935, diplomat, lawyer, senior civil servant
  16. Lucien Lacaze, 1936 - 1955, admiral
  17. Jacques Chastenet, 1956 - 1978, journalist, historian and diplomat
  18. Georges Dumézil, 1978 - 1986, philologist and historian of civilizations
  19. Pierre-Jean Rémy, elected 1988, diplomat, novelist and essayist

External link

Académie's website (in French)


">
" size=20>

 
 

Browse articles alphabetically:
#0">0 | #1">1 | #2">2 | #3">3 | #4">4 | #5">5 | #6">6 | #7">7 | #8">8 | #9">9 | #_">_ | #A">A | #B">B | #C">C | #D">D | #E">E | #F">F | #G">G | #H">H | #I">I | #J">J | #K">K | #L">L | #M">M | #N">N | #O">O | #P">P | #Q">Q | #R">R | #S">S | #T">T | #U">U | #V">V | #W">W | #X">X | #Y">Y | #Z">Z