6th century BC
- Persians conquer Ancient Egypt, dominate eastern Mediterranean.
- Carthage's merchant empire slowly dominates the western Mediterranean
- Roman Republic founded
- Ruin of the Kingdom of Judah and the destruction of the First Temple (586 BC), return of the Jews several decades later.
- Buddha founds Buddhism in India. It became a major world religion.
- Dao de jing written (traditional date)
- Confucius formulates his ethical system of Confucianism, which proved highly influential in China
- Cyrus the Great king of Persia
- Thales Greek mathematician. has predicted an eclipse
- Pythagoras, Greek mathematician. See Pythagorean Theorem