1731Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century
- John Hadley invents the sextant
- 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdom's Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in.
- October 10 - Henry Cavendish, English scientist
- November 9 -Benjamin Banneker, surveyor of the District of Columbia
- December 12 - Erasmus Darwin, English scientist and grandfather of Charles Darwin