1709Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century
- February 2 - Alexander Selkirk is rescued from shipwreck on a desert island, inspiring the book Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe
- July 8 - Battle of Poltava - In the Ukraine, Peter I of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden at Poltava thus effectively ending Sweden's role as a major power in Europe.
- Emperor Nakamikado ascends to the throne of Japan
- March 7 - Georg Steller, German naturalist († 1746)
- December 18 - Princess Elizabeth of Russia, later reigning Emperess of Russia