1701Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century
- January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia.
- May 23 - After being convicted of murdering William Moore and for piracy, Captain William Kidd is hanged in London.
- July 24 - Detroit, Michigan founded.
- September 16 - Prince James Francis Edward Stuart becomes the new claimant to the thrones of Scotland as King James VIII and England as King James III.
- October 9 - The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later renamed Yale University) is chartered in Old Saybrook, Connecticut.
- Philharmonic Society (Academia philharmonicorum) established in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
- In Japan young daimyo Asano Naganori is ordered to commit seppuku(ritual suicide).47 samurai of his service begin planning to avenge his death.
- The English Parliament passes the Act of Settlement 1701, passing the crown of Great Britain to Sophia, Electress of Hanover and her descendants on the death of Queen Anne