1591Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- June - Capture of Zutphen by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau
- July - Capture of Deventer by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau
- August - September - Maurice maneuvers cautiously against the Duke of Parma near Arnhem
- September 14 - Capture of Hulst by Maurice
- October 21 - Capture of Nijmegen by Maurice.
- October 29 - Pope Innocent IX succeeds Pope Gregory XIV.
- Russia, Murder of Dimitri, son of the Tsar
- Russia, Boris Godunov is elected Tsar
- The city of Hyderabad is founded by Quli Quub Shah
- March 15 - Alexandre de Rhodes, French Jesuit missionary.
- August 24 - Robert Herrick, English poet.
- Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, Italian painter.
- Isabella, daughter of Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy, wife of Alphonso of Este, duke of Modena.
- Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex.
- Willebrord Snell, Dutch astronomer and mathematician.