1451Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century
- April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II.
- June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture Bordeaux
- August 20 - The French capture Bayonne, the last English stronghold in Guyenne
- Mehmed II succeeds Murad II as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
- Foundation of the University of Glasgow
- Nicholas of Cusa invents concave lens spectacles to treat myopia
- Roger van der Weyden paints his Last Judgement
- March 9 - Amerigo Vespucci, voyager and cartographer (+ 1512)
- April 22 - Princess Isabella of Castile, later Queen of Castile.
- October 30 - Christopher Columbus (probable date)
- John Cabot (probable date)
- Ludovico Sforza ruler of Milan
- Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset