1271Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century
- Kublai Khan named his empire "Yuan" (元 yuan2), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty.
- The 1st Peace of Pressburg is signed in Bratislava on July 2 between Czech king Ottokar II and King Stephen V of Hungary.
- Gregory X is named Pope
- Baibars, a Mameluk sultan of Egypt, conquers the Krak des Chevaliers
- Baibars conquers the Crusader Principality of Antioch
- Edward I of England organizes the Ninth Crusade against Baibars
- Thomas Agni of Cosenza named Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
- Burnham, Buckinghamshire, England receives a Royal charter allowing it to hold a market and an annual fair
- Kitzbühel officially granted the rights of a city by Louis II of Bavaria
- September 8 - Charles Martel, titular king of Hungary
- September 17 - Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
- Jeanne of Navarre, Queen Consort of France
- Hojo Sadatoki, regent of the Kamakura Shogunate